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SPRINTING. . . Dietary Approaches to Optimize Training Adaptation and Performance

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, and Majke Jorgensen

only following severe dietary carbohydrate restriction, sufficient to promote a state of ketosis. Such a state is unlikely among competitive athletes tapering prior to competition who follow a meal plan with even a moderate carbohydrate content. In light of this, sprint athletes are advised to choose a

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Hepcidin as a Prospective Individualized Biomarker for Individuals at Risk of Low Energy Availability

Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black, and Wendy J. O’Brien

metabolism. During periods of starvation or LEA, the increase in PPARGC1α will activate gluconeogenesis, ketosis, and β-oxidation of fatty acids at the liver ( Lin, Handschin, & Spiegelman, 2005 ; Scarpulla, 2008 ). Interestingly, during prolonged starvation (48 hr) in mice, no detectable increases in IL-6

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Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Postexercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin, and Klavs Madsen

protein after the first session did not significantly affect this increase in fat oxidation, whereas maltodextrin intake somewhat attenuated the increase in fat oxidation during the second bout. Both PRO and CHO intake increased blood insulin levels and attenuated the postexercise ketosis seen after

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Ketone Monoester Ingestion Alters Metabolism and Simulated Rugby Performance in Professional Players

Oliver J. Peacock, Javier T. Gonzalez, Simon P. Roberts, Alan Smith, Scott Drawer, and Keith A. Stokes

and both made an estimated 16  kJ/kg body mass (BM) available for metabolism (total energy intake 1,528 ± 145 kJ). The ketone monoester was provided at a total dose of 590 mg/kg BM based on pilot data showing that this dosing level induces a sustained moderate ketosis (blood BHB of ∼2–3 mmol/L) that

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Acute Ketone Monoester Supplementation Impairs 20-min Time-Trial Performance in Trained Cyclists: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

Devin G. McCarthy, Jack Bone, Matthew Fong, Phillippe J.M. Pinckaers, William Bostad, Douglas L. Richards, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Martin J. Gibala

Nutritional ketosis induced through the ingestion of ketogenic supplements can alter physiological responses to exercise ( Evans et al., 2017 ). This practice has also been purported to enhance performance, at least under selected conditions, although the precise mechanistic basis is unclear

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Adherence to a Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet Is Associated With Diminished Training Quality in Elite Racewalkers

Alannah K.A. McKay, Megan L.R. Ross, Nicolin Tee, Avish P. Sharma, Jill J. Leckey, and Louise M. Burke

perceived exertion per kilometer travelled and a higher perceptual (RPE) and physiological (HR) effort for any given speed. The LCHF diet was associated with a sustained increase in concentrations of blood β HB concentrations above the level considered to signal ketosis (0.5 mM) 2 and within proposed

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Toward a Common Understanding of Diet–Exercise Strategies to Manipulate Fuel Availability for Training and Competition Preparation in Endurance Sport

Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff, and Ronald J. Maughan

CHO to avoid sustained ketosis. • Typical intake = 15–20% energy from CHO (<2.5 g −1 ·kg −1 ·day −1 ), 15–20% protein, 60–65% fat in combination with a moderate-endurance training volume (>5 hr/week). • Deprivation of CHO for muscle fuel needs while consuming high amounts of dietary fat causes

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Organization of Dietary Control for Nutrition-Training Intervention Involving Periodized Carbohydrate Availability and Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet

Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, and Louise M. Burke

moderate protein intake (<∼2 g/kg BM) to achieve chronic ketosis requires the elimination of many staple foods from the standard Western diet (e.g., most fruit, starchy vegetables and legumes, cereal products) and restrictions on the serving sizes of others. For example, there are portion limits on meats

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The Impact of a Short-Term Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet on Biomarkers of Intestinal Epithelial Integrity and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Alannah K.A. McKay, Alice M. Wallett, Andrew J. McKune, Julien D. Périard, Philo Saunders, Jamie Whitfield, Nicolin Tee, Ida A. Heikura, Megan L.R. Ross, Avish P. Sharma, Ricardo J.S. Costa, and Louise M. Burke

>0.5 mM on the morning of the Adaptation trial (range 0.6–2.6 mM) confirming ketosis ( Burke et al., 2021 ). Table 3 Physiological and Environmental Characteristics During the 25 km-Long Walk Protocol at Baseline and Adaptation in Athletes Adhering to the CON, LCHF, and LEA Dietary Intervention

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Nutritional Supplements and the Brain

Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

nutritional ketosis on cognitive outcomes in mild to moderate AD and in mild cognitive impairment. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis, such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism, also may have contributed