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A Framework for Periodized Nutrition for Athletics

Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton, and Louise M. Burke

% energy from CHO to prevent ketosis while reducing CHO intake to levels below the fuel costs of daily training) and the more restrictive ketogenic LCHF diet (K-LCHF: typically <50 g/day CHO and 75–80% fat; Burke et al., 2018 ). However, studies have shown that as little as 5 days of exposure to HFLC

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SPRINTING. . . Dietary Approaches to Optimize Training Adaptation and Performance

Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, and Majke Jorgensen

only following severe dietary carbohydrate restriction, sufficient to promote a state of ketosis. Such a state is unlikely among competitive athletes tapering prior to competition who follow a meal plan with even a moderate carbohydrate content. In light of this, sprint athletes are advised to choose a

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Hepcidin as a Prospective Individualized Biomarker for Individuals at Risk of Low Energy Availability

Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black, and Wendy J. O’Brien

metabolism. During periods of starvation or LEA, the increase in PPARGC1α will activate gluconeogenesis, ketosis, and β-oxidation of fatty acids at the liver ( Lin, Handschin, & Spiegelman, 2005 ; Scarpulla, 2008 ). Interestingly, during prolonged starvation (48 hr) in mice, no detectable increases in IL-6

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Abstracts From the 5th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports, May 9–10, 2018, Castelló de la Plana, Spain

(0.4[0.2–1.0]) ( P  = .008) and between PR2 (0.4[0.2–1.0]) and the marathon (0.1[0–0.3]) ( P  = .008). There was no severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia with ketosis at any time before, during and after the PRs and Marathon. Conclusions.— To avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia, it is necessary to reduce usual doses

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Abstracts From the December 2019 International Sport + Exercise Nutrition Conference in Newscastle upon Tyne

), incorporating MCT into the diet may allow more carbohydrates yet preserving ketosis and exert less inhibitory effect on muscle glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term feeding of ketogenic diet containing MCT on key metabolic enzymes in rat skeletal muscle

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Ketone Monoester Ingestion Alters Metabolism and Simulated Rugby Performance in Professional Players

Oliver J. Peacock, Javier T. Gonzalez, Simon P. Roberts, Alan Smith, Scott Drawer, and Keith A. Stokes

and both made an estimated 16  kJ/kg body mass (BM) available for metabolism (total energy intake 1,528 ± 145 kJ). The ketone monoester was provided at a total dose of 590 mg/kg BM based on pilot data showing that this dosing level induces a sustained moderate ketosis (blood BHB of ∼2–3 mmol/L) that

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Acute Ketone Monoester Supplementation Impairs 20-min Time-Trial Performance in Trained Cyclists: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

Devin G. McCarthy, Jack Bone, Matthew Fong, Phillippe J.M. Pinckaers, William Bostad, Douglas L. Richards, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Martin J. Gibala

Nutritional ketosis induced through the ingestion of ketogenic supplements can alter physiological responses to exercise ( Evans et al., 2017 ). This practice has also been purported to enhance performance, at least under selected conditions, although the precise mechanistic basis is unclear

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Adherence to a Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet Is Associated With Diminished Training Quality in Elite Racewalkers

Alannah K.A. McKay, Megan L.R. Ross, Nicolin Tee, Avish P. Sharma, Jill J. Leckey, and Louise M. Burke

perceived exertion per kilometer travelled and a higher perceptual (RPE) and physiological (HR) effort for any given speed. The LCHF diet was associated with a sustained increase in concentrations of blood β HB concentrations above the level considered to signal ketosis (0.5 mM) 2 and within proposed

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Toward a Common Understanding of Diet–Exercise Strategies to Manipulate Fuel Availability for Training and Competition Preparation in Endurance Sport

Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff, and Ronald J. Maughan

CHO to avoid sustained ketosis. • Typical intake = 15–20% energy from CHO (<2.5 g −1 ·kg −1 ·day −1 ), 15–20% protein, 60–65% fat in combination with a moderate-endurance training volume (>5 hr/week). • Deprivation of CHO for muscle fuel needs while consuming high amounts of dietary fat causes

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Organization of Dietary Control for Nutrition-Training Intervention Involving Periodized Carbohydrate Availability and Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet

Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, and Louise M. Burke

moderate protein intake (<∼2 g/kg BM) to achieve chronic ketosis requires the elimination of many staple foods from the standard Western diet (e.g., most fruit, starchy vegetables and legumes, cereal products) and restrictions on the serving sizes of others. For example, there are portion limits on meats