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Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger, and Sam J. Zizzi

different proposed frameworks based on two higher-order dimensions of perfectionism—perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. Although a point of some debate among researchers in recent years (e.g.,  Flett & Hewitt, 2005 ), perfectionistic strivings have often been considered adaptive and

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Robin S. Vealey, Eric Martin, Angela Coppola, Rose Marie Ward, and Jacob Chamberlin

education contexts on perfectionism and burnout found that perfectionistic strivings (adaptive) had a nonsignificant relationship with both symptoms of burnout and burnout overall, while perfectionistic concerns (maladaptive) were positively related to burnout ( Hill & Curran, 2015 ). Multiple research

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

multisport college athletes. Data were collected from 351 NCAA track-and-field athletes competing at Division II and III colleges. Participants responded to demographic questions and measures of perfectionism (perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings), perceived stress, and burnout. Results

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

influence a variety of sport-related outcomes. One dimension of perfectionism typically related to positive outcomes in sport is perfectionistic strivings or setting high personal performance standards. An individual’s personal strivings may influence sport-specific activity engagement. Furthermore, this

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich, and Leah J. Ferguson

support, well-being, and perfectionist strivings, and negatively related to shame and perfectionist concerns; Fontana, Fry, & Cramer, 2017 ; Huysmans & Clement, 2017 ; Jeon, Lee, & Kwon, 2016 ; Lizmore, Dunn, & Dunn, 2017 ). However, there are few self-compassion studies to date that have focused

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Ellinor Klockare, Luke F. Olsson, Henrik Gustafsson, Carolina Lundqvist, and Andrew P. Hill

effective practice in this area. Research suggests that perfectionism includes two main features: perfectionistic strivings (PS) and perfectionistic concerns (PC). PS captures self-oriented striving for perfection and unrealistically high personal performance standards, whereas PC captures concerns over

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

debilitating as it arises as a coping response to unmet needs of self-esteem and belonging. As such, self-critical perfectionists strive for self-worth and others’ approval via the attainment of excessive standards and engage in harsh self-criticism when these needs are not met. A series of studies by Levine

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Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill

. Based on current approaches to examining combinations of perfectionism, the most problematic combination is thought to be low self-oriented perfectionism and high socially prescribed perfectionism ( Gaudreau, 2016 ). This is because the presence of aspects of perfectionistic strivings (viz

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Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill, and Howard K. Hall

factor analysis of multiple instruments designed to measure perfectionism and provides support for consideration of two broad dimensions of perfectionism (e.g.,  Cox, Enns, & Clara, 2002 ). These two dimensions are termed perfectionistic strivings (PS) and perfectionistic concerns (PC). PS captures self

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Alexander T. Latinjak, Marc Masó, and Nikos Comoutos

-talk. For instance, statements such as try to improve even more and I have to throw perfectly reflect perfectionistic striving. Coaches who learn to listen carefully to their athletes’ goal-directed self-talk might gain additional insight regarding their personality. Moreover, samples of goal