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Christopher Mesagno, Daryl Marchant, and Tony Morris

“Choking under pressure” is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a preperformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three “choking-susceptible”, experienced participants were purposively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = “low-pressure”; B phases = “high-pressure”), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced “choking” in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention.

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Robin C. Jackson and Julien S. Baker

This paper presents a case study of the most prolific rugby goal kicker of all time. In the first part of the study, the consistency of his preperformance routine was analyzed over kicks of varying difficulty. Results indicate that while certain physical aspects of his routine remain consistent, both his concentration time and physical preparation time increase with kick difficulty. In the second part of the study, the participant was interviewed about his physical and mental preparation for rugby goal kicking in competitive situations. The interview revealed that the participant incorporates a number of psychological skills into his routine, including thought stopping, cueing, and imagery but does not do so consistently. However, he perceives the timing of his routine to be highly consistent. Implications of these findings for the recommendation that performers strive for temporal consistency in their routines (Boutcher, 1990) are discussed.

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Paul R. Ashbrook, Andrew Gillham, and Douglas Barba

, imagery, activation, self-talk, negative thinking Goal setting, negative thinking Goal setting, emotional control, imagery, self-talk, negative thinking Negative thinking Self-stated needs Improve emotional control, negative self-talk, preperformance routines. Improve confidence. Improve confidence and

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Joe R. Davis and Paul J. McCarthy

reminded Tim of his request from the previous session and explained that we would work together to refine his preperformance routine and create a “focus blueprint” to enhance his capacity to manage his attention when running. Preperformance routines help athletes focus their attention on task

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Elanor E. Cormack and Jamie Gillman

to establish a routine and if so, at what point in the overall skill process does reinvestment become a possibility? If the setup element is a form of preperformance routine then golf research in this area may hold insights, due to the similarities of isolated skill execution in both sports. For

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Krista Van Slingerland, Natalie Durand-Bush, Poppy DesClouds, and Göran Kenttä

maintaining a “playoff beard” are commonplace in sporting culture as ritualistic attempts to control individuals’ sense of efficacy over sporting outcomes. Moreover, it is common practice to repeat drills over and over to strive for perfection. Another example pertains to preperformance routines. World

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Phil D.J. Birch, Beth Yeoman, and Amy E. Whitehead

participants became aware of the preperformance routines or thought processes that they perceived as being positive to their performance. Participant 1 reported how TA allowed them to illuminate their methodical thought process: It (TA) made me aware of the processes I go through. For example, before the shot

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Veronique Richard, Béatrice Lavoie-Léonard, and Thomas Romeas

activities. Therefore, once relevant activities were designed, they were more formally integrated into two main contexts of integration: the activation before practices and games (e.g., as part of the preperformance routine), as well as S&C sessions. Activities undertaken during activation were of shorter

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Mike Stoker, Ian Maynard, Joanne Butt, Kate Hays, and Paul Hughes

preperformance routines ( Mesagno, Marchant, & Morris, 2008 ), quiet-eye training and analogy learning ( Vine, Moore, Cooke, Ring, & Wilson, 2013 ), and implicit learning ( Hill et al., 2010 ). In addition, stressor-exposure approaches have recently grown in popularity and are proving to be an effective means of

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Nick Wadsworth

perhaps because of the anxiety I was experiencing, I read a number of journal articles related to gymnasts experiencing mental blocks and the psychological skills that they used to overcome them. Some of the techniques that these athletes were using included imagery, self-talk, and preperformance routines