This study provided a descriptive analysis of the interactive decision making factors considered by coaches of youth ice hockey (aged 10–15 years) during games. Using a multiple–case study design, data were collected using a combination of semistructured interviews and an adapted version of stimulated recall interviews. An inductive analysis of the interview transcripts revealed 5 types of interactive decisions, 5 types of goals, and 21 types of factors. The factors were regrouped into two categories (Field Information and Coach Knowledge) and four subcategories (Objective Information, Subjective Information, Player Characteristics, and Knowledge of the Game). Although individual coach differences were found, important cross-coach similarities also emerged. On average, between 2.6 and 3.2 factors were cited for each interactive decision. The adoption of dichotic (yes-no) decision making models based exclusively on player performance, and the ecological validity of conducting lab-based studies to examine the interactive decision making of coaches, is challenged.
Wade D. Gilbert, Pierre Trudel, and Leon P. Haughian
Thomas Davies, Andrew Cruickshank, and Dave Collins
Recent retrospective research has identified effective meso-level thoughts and behaviors for high level golfers (i.e., those deployed between shots and holes). However, how such thoughts and behaviors are actually used during this phase of performance and, or if, they vary in different contexts is unknown. Accordingly, real-time observations followed by stimulated recall interviews were used to examine the meso-level processes used by high-level golfers during competition. Results indicated use of the same pre2- and post-shot routines identified in prior retrospective research but with key differences in the content and application of some of their stages relative to shot outcome. These similarities and differences are discussed along with implications for practitioners: including the importance of developing metacognitive skills, and prioritizing the development of performance expertise over performance competencies for high-level golfers at the meso-level of performance.
Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma
The purpose of this study was to directly compare teacher and student expectations for task difficulty and performance, perceptions of actual task difficulty, perceptions of student performance and effort, and perceptions of teacher feedback. Stimulated recall interviews following a 14-lesson volleyball unit were conducted with 8 sixth-grade students and their physical education teacher. The results revealed little congruency between student and teacher perspectives of task difficulty or perceptions of student performance and effort. The students and the teacher agreed the most on expected performance level and the least on perceptions of effort. Such differences in perspectives may be partially explained by the sources of information used by the teacher and students to form their expectations and perceptions. There was somewhat higher agreement between the teacher and students on the purpose of and affective reactions to skill-related feedback.
Steven K.S. Tan
This study represents a descriptive analysis of feedback patterns and perceptual maps of experienced and inexperienced teachers. Five experienced elementary physical education teachers and 5 inexperienced teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by videotaping and audiotaping three lessons taught by each teacher. Transcripts of audiotapes were made for all verbal feedback administered by the teachers, and each unit of feedback was coded from the written transcripts using a multidimensional observation system. Following the second and third lessons, patterns in cue perception employed by teachers during feedback interaction were accessed using a stimulated recall interview and concept mapping techniques. Results indicated that inexperienced teachers did not differ from experienced teachers in their feedback structure. However, experienced teachers differed from inexperienced teachers on their perceptual patterns. Specifically, perceptual maps of experienced teachers were more complex and were organized hierarchically, whereas inexperienced teachers’ patterns tended to be sparse and hierarchically shallow.
Stephen Harvey, John William Baird Lyle, and Bob Muir
A defining element of coaching expertise is characterised by the coach’s ability to make decisions. Recent literature has explored the potential of Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) as a useful framework for research into coaches’ in situ decision making behaviour. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the NDM paradigm offered a valid mechanism for exploring three high performance coaches’ decision-making behaviour in competition and training settings. The approach comprised three phases: 1) existing literature was synthesised to develop a conceptual framework of decision-making cues to guide and shape the exploration of empirical data; 2) data were generated from stimulated recall procedures to populate the framework; 3) existing theory was combined with empirical evidence to generate a set of concepts that offer explanations for the coaches’ decision-making behaviour. Findings revealed that NDM offered a suitable framework to apply to coaches’ decision-making behaviour. This behaviour was guided by the emergence of a slow, interactive script that evolves through a process of pattern recognition and/or problem framing. This revealed ‘key attractors’ that formed the initial catalyst and the potential necessity for the coach to make a decision through the breaching of a ‘threshold’. These were the critical factors for coaches’ interventions.
The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the beliefs and interactive thoughts of preservice physical education teachers regarding pupil misbehavior and (b) identify the extent to which these teachers’ beliefs and interactive thoughts affect their own actions in such instances. Student teachers (N=15) from two universities participated in the study. Interviews and stimulated recall with the aid of videotapes were used to gather data and analyze their beliefs and thoughts in 311 misbehavior instances. The results indicated that despite personal differences in their own conceptions as teachers, these student teachers agreed that there was nothing they could do to prevent misbehaviors from happening and blamed students, not themselves, for the majority (92%) of the misbehaviors analyzed. Moreover, they reported having interactive thoughts 6 of 10 times when handling misbehaviors. Of those thoughts, four of six were negative. Finally, these student teachers’ high school experience, as pupils themselves, influenced both their expectations of pupils’ conduct and their own actions. They expected their pupils to act as they themselves did back in high school, and, as a result, they modeled their own actions after those of their former teachers and coaches. These actions proved to be ineffective and created feelings of frustration, anger, and inadequacy in the student teachers.
Zachary Wahl-Alexander, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
goals of these negotiations, and their own and students’ responses to these negotiations. Second, PTs were taught how to take part in stimulated recall interviews ( deMarrais, 2004 ). Subsequently, during the EFE each PT engaged in one stimulated recall interview. The protocol for the stimulated recall
Adam J. Nichol, Philip R. Hayes, Will Vickery, Emma Boocock, Paul Potrac, and Edward T. Hall
that shaped human agency and the relations that such agency could in turn transform or reproduce ( Rees & Gatenby, 2014 ). Data were generated through three principal methods: participant observation, semistructured interviews, and stimulated recall interviews. Participant Observation The first author
Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and K. Andrew R. Richards
protocol was used during the formal interviews that allowed for multiple follow-up prompts. Formal interviews were approximately 45 min in duration and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The preservice teachers also completed one stimulated recall interview . This involved McEntyre and a PT
Fernando Santos, Martin Camiré, Dany J. MacDonald, Henrique Campos, Manuel Conceição, and Ana Silva
behavioural patterns evolving from pre to post intervention. Using these video segments, the two coaches were individually interviewed using a stimulated recall technique ( Lyle, 2003 ). The video segments served to stimulate a discussion with each coach on their PYD-related behaviours. The stimulated recall