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Steven K.S. Tan

This study represents a descriptive analysis of feedback patterns and perceptual maps of experienced and inexperienced teachers. Five experienced elementary physical education teachers and 5 inexperienced teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by videotaping and audiotaping three lessons taught by each teacher. Transcripts of audiotapes were made for all verbal feedback administered by the teachers, and each unit of feedback was coded from the written transcripts using a multidimensional observation system. Following the second and third lessons, patterns in cue perception employed by teachers during feedback interaction were accessed using a stimulated recall interview and concept mapping techniques. Results indicated that inexperienced teachers did not differ from experienced teachers in their feedback structure. However, experienced teachers differed from inexperienced teachers on their perceptual patterns. Specifically, perceptual maps of experienced teachers were more complex and were organized hierarchically, whereas inexperienced teachers’ patterns tended to be sparse and hierarchically shallow.

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Salee Supaporn, Patt Dodds, and Linda Griffin

This study was designed to investigate how the classroom ecology (interactions among task systems) and program of action influence participants’ understandings of misbehavior in a middle school physical education setting. One teacher and 14 students participated in a 10-day basketball unit with 47- minute classes. Data included fieldnotes, stimulated recall using videotapes, and semi-structured teacher and student pre- and post-unit interviews. Data were first analyzed inductively by constant comparison (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) and then by using Doyle’s (1986) classroom ecology model to understand the inductively generated categories. Data trustworthiness involved prolonged engagement, member checks, and triangulation. Results indicated that the teacher’s weak managerial task system, coupled with vague and incomplete instructional tasks, interacted with a student social system grounded in various forms of talk as social tasks to support a social program of action. Both teacher and student actions jointly created a primary social vector characterizing the overall program of action.

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Collin A. Webster

Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.

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Stephen Harvey, John William Baird Lyle, and Bob Muir

A defining element of coaching expertise is characterised by the coach’s ability to make decisions. Recent literature has explored the potential of Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) as a useful framework for research into coaches’ in situ decision making behaviour. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the NDM paradigm offered a valid mechanism for exploring three high performance coaches’ decision-making behaviour in competition and training settings. The approach comprised three phases: 1) existing literature was synthesised to develop a conceptual framework of decision-making cues to guide and shape the exploration of empirical data; 2) data were generated from stimulated recall procedures to populate the framework; 3) existing theory was combined with empirical evidence to generate a set of concepts that offer explanations for the coaches’ decision-making behaviour. Findings revealed that NDM offered a suitable framework to apply to coaches’ decision-making behaviour. This behaviour was guided by the emergence of a slow, interactive script that evolves through a process of pattern recognition and/or problem framing. This revealed ‘key attractors’ that formed the initial catalyst and the potential necessity for the coach to make a decision through the breaching of a ‘threshold’. These were the critical factors for coaches’ interventions.

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Juan-Miguel Fernández-Balboa

The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the beliefs and interactive thoughts of preservice physical education teachers regarding pupil misbehavior and (b) identify the extent to which these teachers’ beliefs and interactive thoughts affect their own actions in such instances. Student teachers (N=15) from two universities participated in the study. Interviews and stimulated recall with the aid of videotapes were used to gather data and analyze their beliefs and thoughts in 311 misbehavior instances. The results indicated that despite personal differences in their own conceptions as teachers, these student teachers agreed that there was nothing they could do to prevent misbehaviors from happening and blamed students, not themselves, for the majority (92%) of the misbehaviors analyzed. Moreover, they reported having interactive thoughts 6 of 10 times when handling misbehaviors. Of those thoughts, four of six were negative. Finally, these student teachers’ high school experience, as pupils themselves, influenced both their expectations of pupils’ conduct and their own actions. They expected their pupils to act as they themselves did back in high school, and, as a result, they modeled their own actions after those of their former teachers and coaches. These actions proved to be ineffective and created feelings of frustration, anger, and inadequacy in the student teachers.

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

goals of these negotiations, and their own and students’ responses to these negotiations. Second, PTs were taught how to take part in stimulated recall interviews ( deMarrais, 2004 ). Subsequently, during the EFE each PT engaged in one stimulated recall interview. The protocol for the stimulated recall

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Adam J. Nichol, Philip R. Hayes, Will Vickery, Emma Boocock, Paul Potrac, and Edward T. Hall

that shaped human agency and the relations that such agency could in turn transform or reproduce ( Rees & Gatenby, 2014 ). Data were generated through three principal methods: participant observation, semistructured interviews, and stimulated recall interviews. Participant Observation The first author

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and K. Andrew R. Richards

protocol was used during the formal interviews that allowed for multiple follow-up prompts. Formal interviews were approximately 45 min in duration and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The preservice teachers also completed one stimulated recall interview . This involved McEntyre and a PT

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Fernando Santos, Martin Camiré, Dany J. MacDonald, Henrique Campos, Manuel Conceição, and Ana Silva

behavioural patterns evolving from pre to post intervention. Using these video segments, the two coaches were individually interviewed using a stimulated recall technique ( Lyle, 2003 ). The video segments served to stimulate a discussion with each coach on their PYD-related behaviours. The stimulated recall

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Deborah S. Baxter

possible. The first author (K. McEntyre) was careful not to influence the PCTs with questions posed during the informal interviews. Each PCT also completed one stimulated recall interview . This involved one lesson taught by each PCT being filmed at some stage during the EFE. During this interview, a PCT