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Collin A. Webster

Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.

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Gunn Nyberg and Hakan Larsson

The purpose of this article is to explore physical education (PE) teachers’ content knowledge of the emerging concept movement capability. Interviews with eight PE teachers were conducted, partly using a stimulated recall technique which involved watching and commenting on video recorded PE lessons. A phenomenographic analysis was used to outline the different ways of conceptualizing movement capability. Five different ways of conceptualizing movement capability were identified, which indicates the complexity of the concept movement capability. However, the result also provides a structure for developing a systematic and structured way of conceiving movement capability. In this study we have highlighted a multifaceted, nuanced and differentiated picture of movement capability to see moving as educationally valuable. We conclude by emphasizing that movement capability should not be restricted to only its constitutive parts as teachers’ plan PE teaching, but should be approached as a whole.

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Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma

The purpose of this study was to directly compare teacher and student expectations for task difficulty and performance, perceptions of actual task difficulty, perceptions of student performance and effort, and perceptions of teacher feedback. Stimulated recall interviews following a 14-lesson volleyball unit were conducted with 8 sixth-grade students and their physical education teacher. The results revealed little congruency between student and teacher perspectives of task difficulty or perceptions of student performance and effort. The students and the teacher agreed the most on expected performance level and the least on perceptions of effort. Such differences in perspectives may be partially explained by the sources of information used by the teacher and students to form their expectations and perceptions. There was somewhat higher agreement between the teacher and students on the purpose of and affective reactions to skill-related feedback.

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Salee Supaporn, Patt Dodds, and Linda Griffin

This study was designed to investigate how the classroom ecology (interactions among task systems) and program of action influence participants’ understandings of misbehavior in a middle school physical education setting. One teacher and 14 students participated in a 10-day basketball unit with 47- minute classes. Data included fieldnotes, stimulated recall using videotapes, and semi-structured teacher and student pre- and post-unit interviews. Data were first analyzed inductively by constant comparison (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) and then by using Doyle’s (1986) classroom ecology model to understand the inductively generated categories. Data trustworthiness involved prolonged engagement, member checks, and triangulation. Results indicated that the teacher’s weak managerial task system, coupled with vague and incomplete instructional tasks, interacted with a student social system grounded in various forms of talk as social tasks to support a social program of action. Both teacher and student actions jointly created a primary social vector characterizing the overall program of action.

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Juan-Miguel Fernández-Balboa

The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the beliefs and interactive thoughts of preservice physical education teachers regarding pupil misbehavior and (b) identify the extent to which these teachers’ beliefs and interactive thoughts affect their own actions in such instances. Student teachers (N=15) from two universities participated in the study. Interviews and stimulated recall with the aid of videotapes were used to gather data and analyze their beliefs and thoughts in 311 misbehavior instances. The results indicated that despite personal differences in their own conceptions as teachers, these student teachers agreed that there was nothing they could do to prevent misbehaviors from happening and blamed students, not themselves, for the majority (92%) of the misbehaviors analyzed. Moreover, they reported having interactive thoughts 6 of 10 times when handling misbehaviors. Of those thoughts, four of six were negative. Finally, these student teachers’ high school experience, as pupils themselves, influenced both their expectations of pupils’ conduct and their own actions. They expected their pupils to act as they themselves did back in high school, and, as a result, they modeled their own actions after those of their former teachers and coaches. These actions proved to be ineffective and created feelings of frustration, anger, and inadequacy in the student teachers.

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Stephen Harvey, John William Baird Lyle, and Bob Muir

A defining element of coaching expertise is characterised by the coach’s ability to make decisions. Recent literature has explored the potential of Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) as a useful framework for research into coaches’ in situ decision making behaviour. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the NDM paradigm offered a valid mechanism for exploring three high performance coaches’ decision-making behaviour in competition and training settings. The approach comprised three phases: 1) existing literature was synthesised to develop a conceptual framework of decision-making cues to guide and shape the exploration of empirical data; 2) data were generated from stimulated recall procedures to populate the framework; 3) existing theory was combined with empirical evidence to generate a set of concepts that offer explanations for the coaches’ decision-making behaviour. Findings revealed that NDM offered a suitable framework to apply to coaches’ decision-making behaviour. This behaviour was guided by the emergence of a slow, interactive script that evolves through a process of pattern recognition and/or problem framing. This revealed ‘key attractors’ that formed the initial catalyst and the potential necessity for the coach to make a decision through the breaching of a ‘threshold’. These were the critical factors for coaches’ interventions.

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

goals of these negotiations, and their own and students’ responses to these negotiations. Second, PTs were taught how to take part in stimulated recall interviews ( deMarrais, 2004 ). Subsequently, during the EFE each PT engaged in one stimulated recall interview. The protocol for the stimulated recall

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Adam J. Nichol, Philip R. Hayes, Will Vickery, Emma Boocock, Paul Potrac, and Edward T. Hall

that shaped human agency and the relations that such agency could in turn transform or reproduce ( Rees & Gatenby, 2014 ). Data were generated through three principal methods: participant observation, semistructured interviews, and stimulated recall interviews. Participant Observation The first author

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and K. Andrew R. Richards

protocol was used during the formal interviews that allowed for multiple follow-up prompts. Formal interviews were approximately 45 min in duration and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The preservice teachers also completed one stimulated recall interview . This involved McEntyre and a PT

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Fernando Santos, Martin Camiré, Dany J. MacDonald, Henrique Campos, Manuel Conceição, and Ana Silva

behavioural patterns evolving from pre to post intervention. Using these video segments, the two coaches were individually interviewed using a stimulated recall technique ( Lyle, 2003 ). The video segments served to stimulate a discussion with each coach on their PYD-related behaviours. The stimulated recall