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Jessie M. Wall, Janelle L. Kwee, Marvin J. McDonald and Richard A. Bradshaw

This study was the first to explore the treatment effects of observed and experiential integration (OEI) therapy for the salient psychological barriers to performance experienced by athletes. The hermeneutic single case efficacy design was used to explore the relationship between OEI therapy and athlete psychological functioning. The participant was a student-athlete who met the criteria for the performance dysfunction (multilevel classification system of Sport psychology) category, which indicates that subclinical issues were present. After five phases of data collection, a rich case record was compiled and referenced to develop skeptic and affirmative briefs and corresponding rebuttals by two research teams of three experts (OEI clinician, non-OEI clinician, and sport expert). Three independent judges adjudicated the cases and unanimously concluded that the client changed considerably to substantially and that OEI, the therapeutic relationship, and client expectancy were active variables in the change process.

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Lois Michaud Tomson, Robert P. Pangrazi, Glenn Friedman and Ned Hutchison

While research has confirmed a negative relationship between adult depression and physical activity, there is little evidence for children. This study examined the relationship of being classified as physically active or inactive by a parent or a teacher to depressive symptoms in children 8 to 12 years of age (N = 933). It also assessed the relationship of playing sports outside of school, and of meeting health related fitness standards, to symptoms of depression. Relative risk of depressive symptoms for inactive classification was 2.8 to 3.4 times higher than it was for active, 1.3 to 2.4 times higher for children not playing sports outside of school, and 1.5 to 4.0 times higher for those not meeting health related fitness goals.

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Nancy Getchell, Susan McMenamin and Jill Whitall

This study examines gross motor coordination in children with and without learning disabilities using a dynamical systems perspective. In a dual motor task paradigm (walk/clap, gallop/clap), we measured and compared frequency and phase locking and consistency within and across trials in 12 children with learning disabilities and 12 age-matched typically developing children. In the walk/clap condition, groups differed in consistency and in entrainment (increased frequency of 4 limb coupling) over short-term practice. In the gallop/clap condition, groups differed in consistency; neither group showed entrainment. Comparisons within the LD group of participants with and without diagnosed visual-motor problems showed differences in classification, consistency, and entrainment. These results suggest that gross motor coordination tasks provide information about as well as a novel opportunity for early identification of learning disabilities.

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Wendy M. Holmes and Madeleine E. Hackney

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of 16 individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) partaking in an adapted tango class and the perceived impact on participation and quality of life (QOL). The Ecology of Human Performance and the International Classification of Function were the theoretical frameworks for the study. Data collection involved focus groups conducted during the intervention and at a follow-up six months later. Data analysis followed inductive thematic analysis techniques. The themes addressed living with PD, the class structure and experiences, the participants’ expectations for the class, and the multiple effects experienced by participants at both time periods. The results suggest that adapted tango, when offered in a structured environment with skilled instruction, may improve skills for participation in daily activities and contribute to increased QOL for persons with PD.

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Miriam Getz, Yeshayahu Hutzler and Adri Vermeer

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Fourty- nine children with neuro-motor impairments ages 3 to 7 participated in the study. Pearson correlations were applied to determine the relationships between the AIM and the GMFM, PEDI, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Significant correlations were found between the total AIM and GMFM scores (r = 69, p < .01) and PEDI self-care sub-scale (r = .79, p < .01) as well as the PEDI mobility sub-scale scores (r = .35, p < .05). The water adjustment sub-scale as measured by the AIM showed the strongest relationship to motor performance on land as measured by the GMFM and PEDI in our sample of 49 children.

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Canan Koca and F. Hulya Asci

The purpose of this study was to compare gender role orientation and classification of elite female athletes aged between 18 to 30 years with age-matched female non-athletes in Turkey. Additionally, gender role differences with regard to types of sport in elite female athletes were examined. In this study 306 elite female athletes (Mage = 22.17 ± 2.51) and 264 female non-athletes (Mage = 21.34 ± 3.14) were participants of this study. Female athletes were selected from feminine sports; ballet dancing, aerobic dance, swimming, ice skating, tennis, volleyball (n = 70), from masculine sports; basketball, handball, soccer, wrestling, weight lifting, taekwando, karate, judo (n = 127), and from gender-neutral sports; track and field, shot putting and javelin throwing (n = 109). The Bern Sex Role Inventory was administered to assess the gender role orientations of participants. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that there were significant differences in gender role orientation between elite female athletes from different types of sport and female non-athletes (Hotelling’s T2 = 0.145; F(6,112) = 13.63; p<.01). In a follow-up univariate analysis, a significant difference in masculinity (F(3,569) = 26.07; p<.01) scores between female athletes from different types of sport and female non-athletes were observed. In addition, a chi square analysis showed a significant difference in gender role classifications between elite female athletes from different types of sport and female non-athletes (X2 = 68.22; p<. 01). Based on these findings it was concluded that there were significant differences in gender role orientations between Turkish elite female athletes and nonathletes.

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Rebecca J. Guthrie, Terry L. Grindstaff, Theodore Croy, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Susan A. Saliba

Context:

Individuals with low back pain (LBP) are thought to benefit from interventions that improve motor control of the lumbopelvic region. It is unknown if therapeutic exercise can acutely facilitate activation of lateral abdominal musculature.

Objective:

To investigate the ability of 2 types of bridging-exercise progressions to facilitate lateral abdominal muscles during an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) in individuals with LBP.

Design:

Randomized control trial.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

51 adults (mean ± SD age 23.1 ± 6.0 y, height 173.6 ± 10.5 cm, mass 74.7 ± 14.5 kg, and 64.7% female) with LBP. All participants met 3 of 4 criteria for stabilization-classification LBP or at least 6 best-fit criteria for stabilization classification.

Interventions:

Participants were randomly assigned to either traditional-bridge progression or suspension-exercise-bridge progression, each with 4 levels of progressive difficulty. They performed 5 repetitions at each level and were progressed based on specific criteria.

Main Outcome Measures:

Muscle thickness of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) was measured during an ADIM using ultrasound imaging preintervention and postintervention. A contraction ratio (contracted thickness:resting thickness) of the EO, IO, and TrA was used to quantify changes in muscle thickness.

Results:

There was not a significant increase in EO (F 1,47 = 0.44, P = .51) or IO (F 1,47 = .30, P = .59) contraction ratios after the exercise progression. There was a significant (F 1,47 = 4.05, P = .05) group-by-time interaction wherein the traditional-bridge progression (pre = 1.55 ± 0.22; post = 1.65 ± 0.21) resulted in greater (P = .03) TrA contraction ratio after exercise than the suspension-exercise-bridge progression (pre = 1.61 ± 0.31; post = 1.58 ± 0.28).

Conclusion:

A single exercise progression did not acutely improve muscle thickness of the EO and IO. The magnitude of change in TrA muscle thickness after the traditional-bridging progression was less than the minimal detectable change, thus not clinically significant.

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Tom Kempton, Anita Claire Sirotic, Ermanno Rampinini and Aaron James Coutts

Purpose:

To describe the metabolic demands of rugby league match play for positional groups and compare match distances obtained from high-speed-running classifications with those derived from high metabolic power.

Methods:

Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 25 players from a team competing in the National Rugby League competition over 39 matches. Players were classified into positional groups (adjustables, outside backs, hit-up forwards, and wide-running forwards). The GPS devices provided instantaneous raw velocity data at 5 Hz, which were exported to a customized spreadsheet. The spreadsheet provided calculations for speed-based distances (eg, total distance; high-speed running, >14.4 km/h; and very-highspeed running, >18.1 km/h) and metabolic-power variables (eg, energy expenditure; average metabolic power; and high-power distance, >20 W/kg).

Results:

The data show that speed-based distances and metabolic power varied between positional groups, although this was largely related to differences in time spent on field. The distance covered at high running speed was lower than that obtained from high-power thresholds for all positional groups; however, the difference between the 2 methods was greatest for hit-up forwards and adjustables.

Conclusions:

Positional differences existed for all metabolic parameters, although these are at least partially related to time spent on the field. Higher-speed running may underestimate the demands of match play when compared with high-power distance—although the degree of difference between the measures varied by position. The analysis of metabolic power may complement traditional speed-based classifications and improve our understanding of the demands of rugby league match play.

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Amy Brightmore, John O’Hara, Kevin Till, Steve Cobley, Tate Hubka, Stacey Emmonds and Carlton Cooke

Purpose:

To evaluate the movement and physiological demands of Australasian National Rugby League (NRL) referees, officiating with a 2-referee (ie, lead and pocket) system, and to compare the demands of the lead and pocket referees.

Methods:

Global positioning system devices (10 Hz) were used to obtain 86 data sets (lead, n = 41; pocket, n = 45) on 19 NRL referees. Total distance, relative distance covered, and heart rate per half and across match play were examined within and between referees using t tests. Distance, time, and number of movement “efforts” were examined in 6 velocity classifications (ie, standing <0.5, walking 0.51–2.0, jogging 2.01–4.0, running 4.01–5.5, high-speed running 5.51–7.0, and sprinting >7.0 m/s) using analysis of variance. Cohen d effect sizes are reported.

Results:

There were no significant differences between the lead and pocket referees for any movement or physiological variable. There was an overall significant (large, very large) effect for distance (% distance) and time (% time) (P < .001) between velocity classifications for both the lead and pocket referees. Both roles covered the largest distance and number of efforts at velocities of 0.51–2.0 m/s and 2.01–4.0 m/s, which were interspersed with efforts >5.51 m/s.

Conclusions:

Findings highlight the intermittent nature of rugby league refereeing but show that there were no differences in the movement and physiological demands of the 2 refereeing roles. Findings are valuable for those responsible for the preparation, training, and conditioning of NRL referees and to ensure that training prepares for and simulates match demands.

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Kathryn Mills, Aula Idris, Thu-An Pham, John Porte, Mark Wiggins and Manolya Kavakli

Objectives: To determine the validity and reliability of the peak frontal plane knee angle evaluated by a virtual reality (VR) netball game when landing from a drop vertical jump. Study Design: Laboratory. Methods: Forty participants performed 3 drop vertical jumps evaluated by 3-dimensional motion analysis and 3 drop vertical jumps evaluated by the VR game. Limits of agreement for the peak projected frontal plane knee angle and peak knee abduction were determined. Participants were given a consensus category of “above threshold” or “below threshold” based on a prespecified threshold angle of 9° during landing. Classification agreement was determined using kappa coefficient, and accuracy was determined using specificity and sensitivity. Ten participants returned 1 week later to determine intrarater reliability, standard error of the measure, and typical error. Results: The mean difference in detected frontal plane knee angle was 3.39° (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03° to 5.74°). Limits of agreement were −10.27° (95% CI, −14.36° to −6.19°) to 17.05° (95% CI, 12.97° to 21.14°). Substantial agreement, specificity, and sensitivity were observed for the threshold classification (κ = .66; 95% CI, .42 to .88; specificity = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.0; and sensitivity = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.95). The game exhibited acceptable reliability over time (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC3,1 = .844), and error was approximately 2°. Conclusion: The VR game reliably evaluated a projected frontal plane knee angle. Although the knee angle detected by the VR game is strongly related to peak knee abduction, the accuracy of detecting the exact angle was limited. A threshold approach may be a more accurate approach for gaming technology to evaluate frontal plane knee angles when landing from a jump.