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Megan A. Kuikman, Margo Mountjoy, Trent Stellingwerff, and Jamie F. Burr

with those who consumed 1,500 mg of calcium per day ( Nieves et al., 2010 ). Furthermore, in the armed services, female recruits who received a 2,000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D supplement had a 21% lower rate of stress fracture than those receiving a placebo over 8 weeks of training ( Lappe et

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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman, and Cheryl A. Lovelady

. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D . Washington, DC : National Academy Press , 2010 . 24. Basile LA , Taylor SN , Wagner CL , Horst RL , Hollis BW . The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on serum vitamin D levels and milk calcium concentration in lactating

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Caitlin A. Madison, Rod A. Harter, Marie L. Pickerill, and Jeff M. Housman

-athletes reported iron and Vitamin D supplement use, comparison across the surveillance period was not meaningful; therefore, no additional data analyses to determine the role of dietary supplements were conducted. Table 3 Weekly Mean Training Characteristics and Injury Count Week Precompetition Early competition

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Anna Witkowska, Małgorzata Grabara, Dorota Kopeć, and Zbigniew Nowak

Latosik et al 36 after an 8-week NW program. Sentinelli et al 37 studied women with type 2 diabetes who were involved in a 12-week structured NW program and noted an increase in HDL-C. Prusik et al 38 showed positive changes in the lipid profile and vitamin D supplementation after 12 weeks of NW

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Christopher Rosimus

-related performance in elite athletes . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 21 ( 2 ), 97 – 104 . PubMed 10.1123/ijsnem.21.2.97 Lappe , J. , Cullen , D. , Haynatzki , G. , Recker , R. , Ahlf , R. , & Thompson , K. ( 2008 ). Calcium and vitamin d supplementation decreases

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Daniel Wadsworth, Janet Turnbull, and Sally Lark

risk following whole body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation in institutionalized elderly women. A 6 month randomized controlled trial . Gait & Posture, 33 ( 3 ), 466 – 472 . PubMed ID: 21256028 doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.12.027 Bogaerts , A. , Delecluse , C. , Claessens , A

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen

bleeding, digestive problems, and/ or increased LDL. Vitamin D: An essential fat-soluble vitamin. Skin exposure to sunlight normally accounts for 90% of the source of vitamin D. Enhanced adaptive response to exercise; decreased stress fractures Data on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski, and Zbigniew Obmiński

an increase in repeated bench-press strength with a DAA-nitrate-vitamin D supplement (3 g/day) taken for 28 days, but most power and strength variables were unaffected ( Rodgers et al., 2016 ). To our knowledge, no studies have shown a detrimental effect on physical performance. As such, there might

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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, and Mitsuru Higuchi

of football and performed their exercise training for at least 5 days per week for >2 hr per day (16∶30–20∶00) on an outdoor football field (35°N latitude). All participants were in good health and had no history of diabetes. Athletes were excluded if they were regularly taking vitamin D supplements

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Leigh M. Vanderloo, Jonathan L. Maguire, David W. H. Dai, Patricia C. Parkin, Cornelia M. Borkhoff, Mark S. Tremblay, Laura N. Anderson, Catherine S. Birken, and on behalf of the TARGet Kids! Collaboration

-initiated study from the Dairy Farmers of Canada (2011–2012) and Ddrops provided nonfinancial support (vitamin D supplements) for an investigator-initiated study on vitamin D and respiratory tract infections (2011–2015). C.S.B. reports previously receiving a grant for a completed investigator-initiated study from