upregulate biochemical markers such as lactate, glucose, cortisol, reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. 11 Swimming SIT sets are considered relevant and effective in improving performance in competitive events ranging from 50 to 400 m, as they increase
Athanasios Kabasakalis, Stefanos Nikolaidis, George Tsalis, and Vassilis Mougios
Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton, and Panagiotis Koutakis
include the first-line defense antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase, which act by enzymatically neutralizing oxidants or transforming these to less reactive species and the second-line defense antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, albumin
Andrew M. Holwerda, Freek G. Bouwman, Miranda Nabben, Ping Wang, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemie P. Gijsen, Jatin G. Burniston, Edwin C.M. Mariman, and Luc J.C. van Loon
.102 286 .295 0.643 Cytosolic GPDA Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 3 2.382 ± 1.000 3.366 ± 1.854 41 .464 0.696 Cytosolic GPX1 Glutathione peroxidase 1 1 1.747 ± 0.409 2.394 ± 0.236 37 .077 0.643 Cytosolic GSTA3 Glutathione S-transferase alpha-3 2 2.877 ± 0.481 3.229 ± 1.178 12 .657 0.865 Cytosolic HS90B
Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems
those with a relatively low anthocyanin intake. It has been recently shown that baseline antioxidant status can be a determinant in the effectiveness of supplementing with antioxidants. For example, individuals with a low baseline status of vitamin C ( Paschalis et al., 2016 ) and glutathione
Andrea J. Braakhuis, Will G. Hopkins, and Timothy E. Lowe
The beneficial effects of exercise and a healthy diet are well documented in the general population but poorly understood in elite athletes. Previous research in subelite athletes suggests that regular training and an antioxidant-rich diet enhance antioxidant defenses but not performance.
To investigate whether habitual diet and/or exercise (training status or performance) affect antioxidant status in elite athletes.
Antioxidant blood biomarkers were assessed before and after a 30-min ergometer time trial in 28 male and 34 female rowers. The antioxidant blood biomarkers included ascorbic acid, uric acid, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte- superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Rowers completed a 7-d food diary and an antioxidant-intake questionnaire. Effects of diet, training, and performance on resting biomarkers were assessed with Pearson correlations, and their effect on exercise-induced changes in blood biomarkers was assessed by a method of standardization.
With the exception of GPx, there were small to moderate increases with exercise for all markers. Blood resting TAC had a small correlation with total antioxidant intake (correlation .29; 90% confidence limits, ±.27), and the exercise-induced change in TAC had a trivial to small association with dietary antioxidant intake from vitamin C (standardized effect .19; ±.22), vegetables (.20; ±.23), and vitamin A (.25; ±.27). Most other dietary intakes had trivial associations with antioxidant biomarkers. Years of training had a small inverse correlation with TAC (−.32; ±.19) and a small association with the exercise-induced change in TAC (.27; ±.24).
Training status correlates more strongly with antioxidant status than diet does.
Eyad Alshammari, Shahida Shafi, Jaana Nurmi-Lawton, Andrew Taylor, Susan Lanham-New, and Gordon Ferns
Physical activity is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and may lead to decreased levels of plasma antioxidants and increased oxidant stress. Some studies have reported that antioxidant supplements can reduce the consequences of oxidative stress during exercise. In this study the authors aimed to assess the chronic effects of exercise on endogenous serum antioxidant enzyme concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in adolescent girls who were either competitive gymnasts or sedentary controls. The relationship between age, body-mass index, dietary intake, trace-element status, and serum GPx and SOD was determined. The participants in the study were part of a 3-yr longitudinal investigation of exercise and peak bone-mass development in 38 competitive gymnasts and 40 healthy sedentary adolescent females 8–17 yr of age. Serum GPx and SOD were measured using colorimetric assays, and trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean serum GPx concentrations were significantly higher in the gymnasts than in the sedentary females (157 ± 11.1 vs. 126 ± 8.8 U/ml, p < .05). In contrast, serum SOD concentrations were significantly lower in the gymnasts than in the sedentary group (7.24 ± 2.6 vs. 8.57 ± 2.3 U/ml, p < .05). Serum selenium, zinc, and copper were higher in the physically active group than in the inactive group (0.89 ± 0.03, 10.86 ± 0.39, 14.50 ± 0.50 vs. 0.81 ± 0.03, 10.32 ± 0.28, and 14.38 ± 0.42 μmol/L, respectively), although only serum selenium reached statistical significance (p < .05). The findings show that young female gymnasts have an altered antioxidant enzyme profile compared with their less physically active peers.
Gustavo Monnerat, Carlos A.R. Sánchez, Caleb G.M. Santos, Dailson Paulucio, Rodolfo Velasque, Geisa P.C. Evaristo, Joseph A.M. Evaristo, Fabio C.S. Nogueira, Gilberto B. Domont, Mauricio Serrato, Antonio S. Lima, David Bishop, Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho, and Fernando A.M.S. Pompeu
performed. The analysis revealed the metabolic pathways altered between athletes under basal conditions (Figure 2B ). The data show that individuals with different levels of V ˙ O 2 max can present altered metabolic state related to linoleic acids, glutathione, and retinol among other key metabolic
Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Imen Moussa-Chamari, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Zouheir Sahnoun, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari, and Omar Hammouda
; GLC, plasma glucose; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; [La], plasma lactate; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; SOD, superoxide dismutase; UA, uric acid. Statistical Analyses The statistical tests were processed in GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA). All values in the text, figures, and tables
Emma M. Crum, Matthew J. Barnes, and Stephen R. Stannard
). Accordingly, McKinley-Barnard et al. ( 2015 ) found that cosupplementation of the thiol glutathione with the endogenous NO production component L -citrulline (CIT) increased NO concentration and activity markers more than CIT alone. However, no previous studies have measured the effects of a supplementation
Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune, and Barbora Sládečková
via enhanced metabolic coordination and immune redox balance, specifically through increased liver glycogen storage; lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase activity; and reduction of interleukin-6, interleukin-17, and tumor necrosis factor-α. 8 The present results suggest that the faster