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Rafael Gnat, Agata Dziewońska, Maciej Biały, and Martyna Wieczorek

by studying corticospinal projections to the abdominal muscles. They found that transcranial magnetic stimulation of the ipsilateral motor cortex elicited responses from both ipsi- and contralateral transversus abdominis muscles, suggesting simultaneous engagement of the crossed and uncrossed

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Grant E. Norte, Jay N. Hertel, Susan A. Saliba, David R. Diduch, and Joseph M. Hart

Excitability Active motor threshold was used to quantify corticospinal excitability via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Participants were again seated in the dynamometer similar to the aforementioned procedures. Surface EMG electrodes were replaced over the vastus medialis and distal anteromedial tibia for

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, and Serge Brand

suppression training in F4, the participants executed 20 dart throws. The overall duration of each session was 40 min. Figure 1 —Electrode positions based on the International 10–20 EEG System for positioning of transcranial magnetic stimulation ( Herwig et al., 2003 ). Data Analysis Descriptive statistics

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Hitoshi Oda, Yasushi Sawaguchi, Hiroshi Kunimura, Taku Kawasaki, and Koichi Hiraoka

between the previous and current movements must be present. Motor practice and paired associative stimulation, electrical stimulation to the median nerve, and transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex of the abductor pollicis brevis similarly induce the long-term potentiation-like plasticity

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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim, and Yun-Hee Kim

suggested that the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles showed motor-evoked potentials in response to single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and that WBV of 30 Hz increased corticospinal tract excitability. Their results were similar to the findings in the present study in that the oxyHb

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Paula Chaves, Daniela Simões, Maria Paço, Sandra Silva, Francisco Pinho, José Alberto Duarte, and Fernando Ribeiro

 al . Transient inhibition of the human motor cortex by capsaicin-induced pain. A study with transcranial magnetic stimulation . Neurosci Lett . 2001 ; 314 ( 1–2 ): 97 – 101 . PubMed ID: 11698155 doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02297-2 10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02297-2 38. Farina S , Tinazzi M , Le Pera D

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Thorben Hülsdünker, Martin Ostermann, and Andreas Mierau

performance ( Hülsdünker et al., 2017a , 2019b ; Kawano, Shidara, Watanabe, & Yamane, 1994 ). In line with this, Kavcic, Martin, and Zalar ( 2013 ) observed that interfering with area MT using transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly reduced the N2 amplitude as well as visual and visuomotor

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Yi-Ching Chen, I-Chen Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Wei-Min Huang, Chien-Chun Huang, and Ing-Shiou Hwang

, M. , Novembre , G. , & Keller , P.E. ( 2017 ). Dynamical entrainment of corticospinal excitability during rhythmic movement observation: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study . European Journal of Neuroscience, 45 ( 11 ), 1465 – 1472 . PubMed ID: 28394475 doi:10.1111/ejn.13581 10

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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi, and Adam S. Lepley

gross measurements of torque and EMG data may have limited our ability to detect significant changes. More sensitive outcome measures such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) would be beneficial to future investigations to help detect any immediate changes in corticospinal excitability at the

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi, and Stefano Lazzer

: 23840345 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065596 10.1371/journal.pone.0065596 23840345 3. Temesi J , Rupp T , Martin V , et al . Central fatigue assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation in ultratrail running . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2014 ; 46 ( 6 ): 1166 – 1175 . PubMed ID: 24195865 doi:10