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Grant E. Norte, Jay N. Hertel, Susan A. Saliba, David R. Diduch, and Joseph M. Hart

Excitability Active motor threshold was used to quantify corticospinal excitability via transcranial magnetic stimulation. Participants were again seated in the dynamometer similar to the aforementioned procedures. Surface EMG electrodes were replaced over the vastus medialis and distal anteromedial tibia for

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Hitoshi Oda, Yasushi Sawaguchi, Hiroshi Kunimura, Taku Kawasaki, and Koichi Hiraoka

between the previous and current movements must be present. Motor practice and paired associative stimulation, electrical stimulation to the median nerve, and transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex of the abductor pollicis brevis similarly induce the long-term potentiation-like plasticity

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, and Serge Brand

suppression training in F4, the participants executed 20 dart throws. The overall duration of each session was 40 min. Figure 1 —Electrode positions based on the International 10–20 EEG System for positioning of transcranial magnetic stimulation ( Herwig et al., 2003 ). Data Analysis Descriptive statistics

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Paula Chaves, Daniela Simões, Maria Paço, Sandra Silva, Francisco Pinho, José Alberto Duarte, and Fernando Ribeiro

 al . Transient inhibition of the human motor cortex by capsaicin-induced pain. A study with transcranial magnetic stimulation . Neurosci Lett . 2001 ; 314 ( 1–2 ): 97 – 101 . PubMed ID: 11698155 doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02297-2 10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02297-2 38. Farina S , Tinazzi M , Le Pera D

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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim, and Yun-Hee Kim

suggested that the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles showed motor-evoked potentials in response to single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and that WBV of 30 Hz increased corticospinal tract excitability. Their results were similar to the findings in the present study in that the oxyHb

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Thorben Hülsdünker, Martin Ostermann, and Andreas Mierau

performance ( Hülsdünker et al., 2017a , 2019b ; Kawano, Shidara, Watanabe, & Yamane, 1994 ). In line with this, Kavcic, Martin, and Zalar ( 2013 ) observed that interfering with area MT using transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly reduced the N2 amplitude as well as visual and visuomotor

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Spencer E. Boyle, Melissa A. Fothergill, John Metcalfe, Sarah Docherty, and Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

.1093/cercor/bhs193 22784605 34. Elkin-Frankston S , Rushmore RJ , Valero-Cabré A . Low frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation of right posterior parietal cortex reduces reaction time to perithreshold low spatial frequency visual stimuli . Sci Rep . 2020 ; 10 ( 1 ): 1 – 9 . doi:10.1038/s41598

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Fawaz A. Alwadani, Huaqing Liang, and Alexander S. Aruin

( 4th ed. ). Philadelphia, PA : Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . Solopova , I.A. , Kazennikov , O.V. , Deniskina , N.B. , Levik , Y.S. , & Ivanenko , Y.P. ( 2003 ). Postural instability enhances motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in humans

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi, and Stefano Lazzer

: 23840345 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065596 10.1371/journal.pone.0065596 23840345 3. Temesi J , Rupp T , Martin V , et al . Central fatigue assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation in ultratrail running . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2014 ; 46 ( 6 ): 1166 – 1175 . PubMed ID: 24195865 doi:10

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Keith R. Lohse

-mounted eye-tracking technologies can be used to measure children’s eye-movements in real time to better understand the development of handwriting. Hooyman et al. ( 2020 ) present a perspective paper on a novel method for pair-associative stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Including some