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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, and Mitsuru Higuchi

of football and performed their exercise training for at least 5 days per week for >2 hr per day (16∶30–20∶00) on an outdoor football field (35°N latitude). All participants were in good health and had no history of diabetes. Athletes were excluded if they were regularly taking vitamin D supplements

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Tom Clifford

-induced gains in muscle strength in older adults, suggesting a potential role for vitamin D supplementation in long-term musculoskeletal adaptations to exercise (reviewed in Candow et al., 2012 ). As of yet, there is little research to suggest that vitamin D supplementation would translate to enhanced

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá, and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

.1155/2014/231312 Rondanelli , M. , Klersy , C. , Terracol , G. , Talluri , J. , Maugeri , R. , Guido , D. , & Perna , S. ( 2016 ). Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar, and Stephane Bermon

determined by microdialysis in humans . The Journal of Physiology, 521 , 299 – 306 . doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.00299.x 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.00299.x Lappe , J. , Cullen , D. , Haynatzki , G. , Recker , R. , Ahlf , R. , & Thompson , K. ( 2008 ). Calcium and vitamin D supplementation

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Heitor O. Santos, Gederson K. Gomes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Erick P. de Oliveira

25(OH)D levels. A meta-analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation (300–4,000 IU/day) has a small positive effect on muscle strength (mainly in individuals presenting chronically low vitamin D levels and in older adults), but no effects were shown for muscle mass ( Beaudart et al., 2014 ). Thus

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Allison Naber, Whitney Lucas Molitor, Andy Farriell, Kara Honius, and Brooke Poppe

.1186/s12889-017-4197-8 10.1186/s12889-017-4197-8 Björkman , M. , Sorva , A. , & Tilvis , R. ( 2008 ). Vitamin D supplementation has no major effect on pain or pain behavior in bedridden geriatric patients with advanced dementia . Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 20 ( 4 ), 316 – 321

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Andreia Teixeira, Ronaldo Gabriel, Luis Quaresma, Ana Alencoão, José Martinho, and Helena Moreira

. PubMed ID: 26348226 doi:10.2466/06.PMS.121c17x0 10.2466/06.PMS.121c17x0 26348226 101. Irandoust K , Taheri M . The effect of vitamin d supplement and indoor vs outdoor physical activity on depression of obese depressed women . Asian J Sports Med . 2017 ; 8 ( 3 ): e13311 . doi:10.5812/ASJSM.13311

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Oluwaseyi Osho, Oluwatoyosi Owoeye, and Susan Armijo-Olivo

exercise interventions reduce risk and rate of falls and that multifactorial assessment and intervention, home safety interventions, vitamin D supplementation, and other interventions are effective for fall prevention. However, the issue of how the levels of adherence and attrition attained in the exercise

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour, and Keith Davids

clinical trials between 2016 and 2018 ( Guirguis-Blake, Michael, Perdue, Coppola, & Beil, 2018 ) have demonstrated that a multifactorial program as well as exercise and vitamin D supplementation were effective interventions to reduce the rate of falls incidents in community-dwelling older adults. The

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman, and Samuel R. Nyman

’s autonomy and quality of life ( National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2013 ). A variety of interventions (including Vitamin D supplementation, exercise, environmental, and multifactorial interventions) have been attempted to reduce the risk factors for falls among older adults living in the