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Beatriz M. Crespo-Ruiz, Antonio J. Del Ama-Espinosa and ángel M. Gil-Agudo

The objective was to conduct a methodological pilot study to analyze wheelchair propulsion upper limb kinematics in standard competitive play considering the functional classification of each athlete. Ten basketball players with a functional classification ranging from 1 to 4 were included in the study. Four camcorders (Kinescan-IBV) and a treadmill for wheelchairs were used. Temporal parameters were analyzed and the upper limb kinematics was obtained using ISB recommendations. The value of the temporal parameters such as push phase duration, the ratio of push phase/recovery phase, contact, and propulsion angle seems to reduce as the functional classification increases. A methodological protocol has been developed that allows the analysis of kinematic characteristics of wheelchair propulsion in basketball players taking into account their functional classification.

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Tim L.A. Doyle, Ronald W. Davis, Brendan Humphries, Eric L. Dugan, Bryon G. Horn, Jae Kun Shim and Robert U. Newton

A number of researchers have long questioned systems used for classifying athletes with disabilities. Wheelchair basketball players have gained much attention from researchers. Despite this, no change to the NWBA classification system has been made since it was first adopted in 1984. This study investigated the NWBA classification system. At two summer basketball camps, 46 players were tested to assess player sprint performance and stratification under the NWBA medical classification system. The group consisted of Class 1, 2, and 3 players. Electronic timing gates were used to collect 20 meter sprint-times. Results indicate that Class 1 players were significantly slower compared to Class 2 and 3 players (p < .05) with no difference between Class 2 and 3. The results of this study support a change to this system.

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Bartosz Molik, Elżbieta Lubelska, Andrzej Kosmol, Magdalena Bogdan, Abu B. Yilla and Ewelina Hyla

The purpose of the study was to examine the offensive game efficiency of elite wheelchair rugby players with regard to their International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF) classification. Male athletes (105) representing 12 European nations competing at the 2005 European Wheelchair Rugby Championships took part in this study. The primary recording instrument was the Game Efficiency Sheet (GES), an instrument designed to objectively record parameters of wheelchair rugby efficiency such as points scored, steals, turnovers, balls caught (%), and balls passed (%). Kruskal-Wallis between groups analyses identified significant differences among the lower classification groups (0.5–2.0) and between the lower and higher classification (2.5–3.5) groups. Further research is needed in identifying game efficiency differences in higher class groups.

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Daniela A. Rubin, Robert G. McMurray, Joanne S. Harrell, Barbara W. Carlson and Shrikant Bangdiwala

The purpose of this project was to determine the accuracy in lipids measurement and risk factor classification using Reflotron, Cholestech, and Ektachem DT-60 dry-chemistry analyzers. Plasma and capillary venous blood from fasting subjects (n = 47) were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) using these analyzers and a CDC certified laboratory. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of each portable analyzer against the CDC reference method. One-way ANOVAs were performed for TC, HDL-C, and TG between all portable analyzers and the reference method. Chi-square was used for risk classification (2001 NIH Guidelines). Compared to the reference method, the Ektachem and Reflotron provided significantly lower values for TC (p < .05). In addition, the Cholestech and Ektachem values for HDL-C were higher than the CDC (p < .05). The Reflotron and Cholestech provided higher values of TG than the CDC (p < .05). Chi-squares analyses for risk classification were not significant (p > .45) between analyzers. According to these results, the Ektachem and Cholestech analyzers met the current NCEP III guidelines for accuracy in measurement of TC, while only Ektachem met guidelines for TG. All 3 analyzers provided a good overall risk classification; however, values of HDL-C should be only used for screening purposes.

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Rachel Arnold and David Fletcher

The purpose of this study was to synthesize the research that has identified the organizational stressors encountered by sport performers and develop a taxonomic classification of these environmental demands. This study used a meta-interpretation, which is an interpretive form of synthesis that is suited to topic areas employing primarily qualitative methods. Thirty-four studies (with a combined sample of 1809 participants) were analyzed using concurrent thematic and context analysis. The organizational stressors that emerged from the analysis numbered 1287, of which 640 were distinct stressors. The demands were abstracted into 31 subcategories, which were subsequently organized to form four categories: leadership and personnel, cultural and team, logistical and environmental, and performance and personal issues. This meta-interpretation with taxonomy provides the most accurate, comprehensive, and parsimonious classification of organizational stressors to date. The findings are valid, generalizable, and applicable to a large number of sport performers of various ages, genders, nationalities, sports, and standards.

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Asuman Saltan and Handan Ankarali


To compare classification levels and trunk stabilization of wheelchair basketball players and to identify their norm values of trunk balance.


113 wheelchair basketball players in the super and first Turkish leagues.


A modified Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) (version 4.1) was used to evaluate trunk stabilization. Two skills were chosen that correspond to the stationary wheelie activity in WST, the 30-s stationary wheelie and stationary wheelie in 180°.

Main Outcome Measure:

There are no statistical differences between WST rates and point means.


The skills and success and safety rates of the players with 1.5 points (51.9%, 44.4%) were lower than those of the players with 1.0 point (70%, 66.7%). In players with 2.5 and 2.0 points, the most successful and safest percentage values were 78.6%, 78.6% and 82.1%, 75%.


Although it is expected that trunk stabilization would be better in players with high points, in our study we encountered conflicting results between the points and sitting balance or trunk stabilization. Our study supports the studies in the literature suggesting modifications in the functional-classification system.

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Frank M. Brasile

The data used for statistical analysis in this investigation were based on results from 79 males tested at the National Wheelchair Basketball Association/Paralyzed Veterans of America wheelchair basketball camp held at Wright State University in August 1989. Results acquired from a multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences in scores across NWBA player classification levels. Post hoc comparisons indicated that Class II and Class III participants were similar and that Class I participants recorded lower overall skills proficiency scores. A stepwise forward regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of predictor variables on skill proficiency levels. Results indicate that one’s level of disability may influence performance; however, amount of time spent in practice, previous experience in the sport, and age also influence one’s overall performance in wheelchair basketball.

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P. Chelladurai

A classification of sport and physical activity services based on two dimensions is presented. The first dimension is the type and extent of employee involvement in the production of services—consumer, professional, and human services. The second dimension is the four sets of client motives for participation in sport and physical activity—pursuit of pleasure, skill, excellence, and health/fitness. A combination of these two dimensions yields six classes of sport and physical activity services: consumer pleasure, consumer health/fitness, human skills, human excellence, human sustenance, and human curative. The managerial implications emerging from the proposed model are outlined with reference to programming, organizing, staffing, and leading in organizations delivering sport and physical activity services.

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C. Roger James, Barry T. Bates and Janet S. Dufek

The purposes of this study were to (a) present a theoretical model to explain the methods by which individuals accommodate impact force in response to increases in an applied stressor, (b) use the model and a correlation procedure to classify a sample of individuals based on their observed response patterns, and (c) statistically evaluate the classification process. Ten participants performed landings from three heights while video and force platform data were being collected. Magnitudes of impact-force characteristics from ground reaction force and lower extremity joint moments were evaluated relative to changes in landing momentum. Correlation between impact force and landing momentum was used to classify participant responses into either a positive or negative biomechanical strategy, as defined by the model. Positive and negative groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results indicated that all responses fit within the categories defined by the model. Some individuals preferred positive strategies while others preferred negative ones depending on the specific variable. Only one participant consistently exhibited the negative strategy for all variables. Positive and negative groups were determined to be statistically different, p ≤ 0.05, for 61% of the comparisons, suggesting actual differences between groups. The proposed model appeared robust and accounted for all responses in the current experiment. The model should be evaluated further using landing and other impact activities; it should be refined and used to help researchers understand individual impact-response strategies in order to identify those who may be at risk for impact related injuries.

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Dale A. Ulrich

This study was designed to investigate the reliability of classification decisions in the fundamental motor skill domain using the Objectives-Based Motor Skill Assessment Instrument. Nonhandicapped (n = 80) and mentally retarded (n = 40) students in the age range of 3 through 10 were assessed on two separate days. Two likely domain mastery criterion levels were used (85 and 70% of the total test score). The proportion of agreement (P) and Kappa (K) were the reliability indices employed. The reliability estimates for the nonhandicapped group were P = .89 and K = .78 using the 85% mastery criterion and P = .92 and K = .84 for the 70% criterion. The reliability estimates obtained for the mentally retarded group using an 85% criterion were P = .87 and K = .62 and for the 70% criterion P = .93 and K = .83. Based on these results the criterion-referenced test appears to consistently classify students on two occasions as masters or non-masters of fundamental motor skills using either cut-off score.