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Nick Galli, Skye Shodahl, and Mark P. Otten

poor relationship with food and an intense fear of weight gain even in retirement ( Kerr & Dacyshyn, 2000 ). Retired swimmers and gymnasts noted the continued influence of swimming-related pressures on their current body image and eating patterns, as well as the challenging process of “recalibrating

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf, and Louise Burke

in higher intake consumers), but underestimation of energy also reported c,i • A FFQ developed in male athletes predicted intake of group but not individuals g • Does not collect information on meal or eating patterns f Diet history: Trained interviewer asks athlete details of typical diet

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton, and Adam S. Tenforde

consideration of the commonly consumed foods and eating patterns. Here, there are also striking patterns, which are atypical for the Western diet but share attributes with eating styles of LEA populations and may further contribute to the problematic health outcomes. Dietary surveys of East African distance

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

concentrations was influenced by the adoption of food records. Trials that reported using tools to monitor the eating patterns of participants (3 studies) yielded significant adiponectin increases (ES: −1.373; 95% CI, −2.177 to −0.570; P  < .001; I 2 : 49%; −0.754 μg·mL −1 ). Trials that did not report the use

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Travis Anderson, Laurie Wideman, Flavio A. Cadegiani, and Claudio E. Kater

short-term intensive exercise training . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2010 ; 108 ( 6 ): 1125 – 1131 . PubMed ID: 20091182 doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1220-5 10.1007/s00421-009-1220-5 20091182 46. Cadegiani FA , Kater CE . Body composition, metabolism, sleep, psychological and eating patterns of overtraining

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer, and Mario Thevis

negative health outcomes, such as menstrual dysfunction, stress fractures, reduction of the BMR, and decreased reproductive hormone concentrations, as well as a decline in performance ( 26 , 31 , 38 , 51 ). Athletes show increased occurrence of disordered eating patterns compared with their nonactive peers

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton, and Louise M. Burke

unique type of workout, which then influences the fluctuations or manipulations of energy and macronutrient intake that needs to be integrated into daily eating patterns, as well as an appreciation of these elements over a given training meso and macrocycle. Many indirect protocols can be implemented to

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke, and Jeni Pearce

both the eating patterns and exercise patterns/performance of athletes on arrival at their destination. Athletes who are susceptible may wish to consider consuming additional fluids and foods that are fiber rich or have natural laxative properties (e.g., prunes, kiwifruit, or chia seeds) during long

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Victoria C. Edwards, Stephen D. Myers, Sophie L. Wardle, Andrew G. Siddall, Steve D. Powell, Sarah Needham-Beck, Sarah Jackson, Julie P. Greeves, and Sam D. Blacker

setting, where sleep was not disrupted, a more typical three-meal eating pattern was observed. Based on the overarching principle that evenly distributing EI throughout the day is likely to promote maintenance of muscle mass and exercise recovery, individual data indicate that nutritional intake during

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Minsuk Oh, David R. Jacobs Jr, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Wei Bao, Gary L. Pierce, Lucas J. Carr, James G. Terry, Jingzhong Ding, John J. Carr, and Kara M. Whitaker

that detrimental associations between TV viewing and health outcomes are even stronger than other lifestyle sedentary behaviors, 13 which may be due to uncontrolled snacking and/or prolonged adverse eating patterns as well as excessive exposure to food advertisements during TV time. 31 Mitchell et