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Tom Clifford

protein fractional synthetic rate; AVA = avenanthramide; NRB = neutrophil respiratory burst; IL-1β = interleukin-1beta; GPX = glutathione peroxidase; CRP = C-reactive protein; SOD = superoxide dismutase; GSH = reduced glutathione; GSSG = glutathione disulfide; TAC = total antioxidant capacity; NF

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Andrew M. Holwerda, Freek G. Bouwman, Miranda Nabben, Ping Wang, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemie P. Gijsen, Jatin G. Burniston, Edwin C.M. Mariman, and Luc J.C. van Loon

.102 286 .295 0.643 Cytosolic GPDA Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 3 2.382 ± 1.000 3.366 ± 1.854 41 .464 0.696 Cytosolic GPX1 Glutathione peroxidase 1 1 1.747 ± 0.409 2.394 ± 0.236 37 .077 0.643 Cytosolic GSTA3 Glutathione S-transferase alpha-3 2 2.877 ± 0.481 3.229 ± 1.178 12 .657 0.865 Cytosolic HS90B

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

those with a relatively low anthocyanin intake. It has been recently shown that baseline antioxidant status can be a determinant in the effectiveness of supplementing with antioxidants. For example, individuals with a low baseline status of vitamin C ( Paschalis et al., 2016 ) and glutathione

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes, and Jerson Laks

is able to increase the antioxidant activity by upregulation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to an anti-inflammatory status. 52 , 53 In relation to CRP, it is important to highlight that exercise decreases levels of triglyceride and cholesterol followed by CRP

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David C. Nieman, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Andrew T. Hoyle, Andrew Simonson, and Giuseppe Valacchi

systems, including Nrf2 ( Bocci & Valacchi, 2015 ; Pellegrini et al., 2019 ; Williamson et al., 2018 ). Nrf2 regulates antioxidant genes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, that interact with oxidant mediators and counter redox dyshomeostasis ( Sivandzade et al., 2019

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf, and Louise Burke

coenzyme ( erythrocyte transketolase [thiamine], erythrocyte glutathione reductase [riboflavin]) or the concentration of a metabolic product that arises from reduced activity of a nutrient-dependent enzyme (methylmalonic acid [vitamin B12]) ( Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, 1998

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Bethany Northeast and Tom Clifford

 = prostaglandin E 2 ; IL-6 = interleukin 6; INFα = interferon-α; IL-1β = interleukin-1β; CK = creatine kinase; LDH = lactate dehydrogenase; ALD = aldolase; GOT = glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase; GPT = glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase; CRP = C-reactive protein; GPx = glutathione peroxidase; TBARS

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Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin, and Jennifer Weggen

/Zn superoxide dismutase in human aortic endothelial cells . Circ Res . 1996 ; 79 ( 1 ): 32 – 37 . PubMed ID: 8925565 doi:10.1161/01.RES.79.1.32 8925565 10.1161/01.RES.79.1.32 44. Takeshita S , Inoue N , Ueyama T , Kawashima S , Yokoyama M . Shear stress enhances glutathione peroxidase

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Richard B. Kreider

aminobutyric acid Creatine monohydrate Citrulline Glutamine Sodium bicarbonate Phosphatidic acid Hydroxyisoleucine Sodium phosphate Essential amino acids Inosine Water and glucose electrolyte solution Glutathione Medium-chain triglycerides Energy drinks and preworkout supplements Glycerol Ribose Glycine

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Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva, and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

of antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, and reduced the expression of CCL2/MCP-1, resulting in a reduced level of lung emphysema and improved lung elastance. 102 In a similar study, it was shown that a preeminent antioxidant effect, induced by exercise in a model of smoke-induced COPD in mice