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Elizabeth B. Delia

Since its introduction, team identification has allowed scholars to obtain an extensive understanding of the effects of sport consumers’ psychological connection with teams ( Lock & Heere, 2017 ). However, despite the vast literature, nearly all team identification inquiries have focused on men

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Brian M. Mills, Scott Tainsky, B. Christine Green and Becca Leopkey

to increase league aggregate demand across the season, likely putting rival fans in contact more often ( Lenor et al., 2016 ; Szymanski & Winfree, 2017 ). The emotional intensity of sport rivalries is presumably related to fans’ identification with the team. As fans identify with the team, they

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Herbert W. Marsh and Sabina Kleitman

Participation in high school sports had positive effects on many Grade 12 and postsecondary outcomes (e.g., school grades, coursework selection, homework, educational and occupational aspirations, self-esteem, university applications, subsequent college enrollment, and eventual educational attainment) after controlling background variables and parallel outcomes from Grades 8 and 10 in a large, nationally representative, 6-year longitudinal study. In contrast to Zero-Sum and Threshold Models, these positive effects generalized across academic and nonacademic outcomes, across the entire range of athletic participation levels, and across different subgroups of students (e.g., SES, gender, ethnicity, ability levels, educational aspirations). Sport participation is hypothesized to increase identification/commitment to school and school values which mediate the participation effects, particularly for narrowly defined academic outcomes not directly related to sport participation. Consistent with this Identification/Commitment Model, extramural sport, and to a lesser extent team sport, had more positive effects than intramural and individual sports.

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Charmaine DeFrancesco and Joseph J. Cronin

There is a significant need for identifying marketing techniques and strategies to enhance the career opportunities of the sport psychologist. Unfortunately, few sport psychologists have the entrepreneurial skills needed to reach alternative target markets. Professional service marketing can help the sport psychologist identify and develop strategies for employment and career opportunities. This paper examines current issues concerning the sport psychology profession, the role of marketing in professional service organizations, and a six-step marketing procedure for creating a professional marketing plan for the sport psychologist. The six steps of the marketing process include (a) situational analysis, (b) identification of service availability, (c) market assessment, (d) identification of decision-making roles, (e) marketing plan, and (f) evaluation process.

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Patrick H.F. Baillie and Steven J. Danish

Transition out of a career in sports has been suggested as being a difficult and disruptive process for many athletes. An early and enduring identification, familiarity, and preference for the role of athlete may cause its loss to be a significant stressor for the elite, Olympic, or professional athlete. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various aspects of the career transition process in sports, beginning with early identification with the role of athlete and continuing through retirement from active participation in competitive sports. Athletes are often poorly prepared for the off-time event of leaving sports, and traditional theories of retirement may not be suitable. People associated with athletes (coaches, peers, management, family members, and sport psychologists) and athletes themselves need to be aware of the potential for difficulty during their career transition.

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Sandra C. Webber, Francine Hahn, Lisa M. Lix, Brenda J. Tittlemier, Nancy M. Salbach and Ruth Barclay

for identifying outdoor walking bouts in mobility-limited older adults. Five cadence thresholds (≥30, ≥35, ≥40, ≥45, and ≥50 steps/min) and a lifestyle cpm threshold (>760 cpm) were evaluated. Identification of the optimal method of detecting walking bouts may have practical implications for detecting

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Matthew Katz, Aaron C. Mansfield and B. David Tyler

team identification ( Wann & Branscombe, 1993 ), which developed into one of the most widely studied phenomena within sport ( James, Delia, & Wann, 2019 ). Most team identification researchers focus on the consequences of individuals’ identification with sport teams, emphasizing consumer behaviors such

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Susan A. Jackson and Robert C. Eklund

The Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) and Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) are presented as two self-report instruments designed to assess flow experiences in physical activity. Item modifications were made to the original versions of these scales in order to improve the measurement of some of the flow dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses of an item identification and a cross-validation sample demonstrated a good fit of the new scales. There was support for both a 9-first-order factor model and a higher order model with a global flow factor. The item identification sample yielded mean item loadings on the first-order factor of .78 for the FSS-2 and .77 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged from .80 to .90 for the FSS-2, and .81 to .90 for the DFS-2. In the cross-validation sample, mean item loadings on the first-order factor were .80 for the FSS-2, and .73 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged between .80 to .92 for the FSS-2 and .78 to .86 for the DFS-2. The scales are presented as ways of assessing flow experienced within a particular event (FSS-2) or the frequency of flow experiences in chosen physical activity in general (DFS-2).

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Taylor K. Wise

/Intervention for Athletes with Eating Disorders (27) 2. Theme B: ED/Multidisciplinary Sports Medicine Treatment Team (25) 3. Theme C: Health/Safety Recognition Introduction (23) 4. Theme D: Prevention of Disordered Eating in Athletics (18) 5. Theme E: Identification: Signs/Symptoms/Behaviors (18) 6. Theme F

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Susan S. Levy

Using a qualitative design, the purpose of this study was to investigate the personal meaning of competition to the female mountain bike racer. Interviews were conducted with nine female mountain bike racers of varying levels of experience, and were designed to elicit information relevant to the athlete’s understanding of her experience of competition, as well as, the personal meaning she attached to that experience. The codification of participant responses resulted in the identification of eight main themes including self-fulfillment, perceived competence, social support and camaraderie, health and fitness, joy of the experience, focus and self-control, external benefits derived from racing, and goal-direction. The findings of the study were, in general, supportive of the components of meaning posited by Personal Investment Theory (Maehr & Braskamp, 1986). Practical implications from this study include developing strategies for increasing the meaningfulness of the competitive experience for females in order to promote participation in physical activity.