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Jean L. McCrory, David R. Lemmon, H. Joseph Sommer, Brian Prout, Damon Smith, Deborah W. Korth, Javier Lucero, Michael Greenisen, Jim Moore, Inessa Kozlovskaya, Igor Pestov, Victor Stepansov, Yevgeny Miyakinchenko and Peter R. Cavanagh

A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak Linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5°, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.

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Kenneth R. Turley and Jack H. Wilmore

This study investigated whether cardiovascular responses at a given submaximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2, L · min-1) are different between the treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). Submaximal cardiovascular measurements were obtained at three work rates on both the TM and CE in 7- to 9-year-old children (12 males and 12 females). Using regression analysis, it was determined that there were no differences between the TM and CE in cardiac output (L · min-1), stroke volume (SV, ml · beat-1) or heart rate (beats · min-1) at a given V̇O2 (L · min-1). There were differences in the total peripheral resistance (TPR, units) and arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff, ml · 100 ml-1) to V̇O2 (L · min-1) relationship. While there were statistically significant differences in TPR and a-vO2 diff between the two modalities, there was substantial overlap of individual values at any given submaximal V̇O2, thus the physiological significance is questionable. Hence, we conclude that in 7- to 9-yearold children there are no differences in submaximal cardiovascular responses between the CE and TM.

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Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa, Saeed A. Al-Refaee, Muhammed A. Sulaiman, Ma’ed Y. Dafterdar, Abdullah S. Al-Herbish and Andrew C. Chukwuemeka

The purpose of this study was to examine the maximal cardiorespiratory responses of trained adolescent male swimmers (SWM, N = 18), soccer players (SOC, N = 18), and moderately active reference subjects (CON, N = 16) to treadmill running (TRD) and arm ergometry (ARM). Mean values (±SD)for skeletal age were similar among the three groups (12.5± 1.9, 12.7 ± 1.1, and 12.5 ± 1.6 years, for the SWM, SOC, and CON, respectively). Allometric scaling procedures, relating VO2max and body mass, were used and mass exponents of .80 and .74 were identified for TRD and ARM data, respectively. During TRD testing SOC attained significantly higher VO2max values when expressed in ml · kg−1 · min−1, or ml · kg−0.80 · min−1 than the other two groups. However, during ARM testing, the SWM achieved significantly higher VO2peak values (ml · kg−0.74 · min−1 and scaled to arm-CSA) than SOC. The ratio of ARM-VAT to TRD-VAT was significantly higher in SWM (50.1± 9%) compared to SOC (41.2±5%), or CON (41.9 ± 6%).

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Mandy L. Gault, Richard E. Clements and Mark E.T. Willems

Cardiovascular responses of older adults to downhill (DTW, –10% incline) and level treadmill walking (0%) at self-selected walking speed (SSWS) were examined. Fifteen participants (age 68 ± 4 yr, height 1.69 ± 0.08 m, body mass 74.7 ± 8.1 kg) completed two 15-min walks at their SSWS (4.6 ± 0.6 km/hr). Cardiovascular responses were estimated using an arterial-volume finger clamp and infrared plethysmography. Oxygen consumption was 25% lower during DTW and associated with lower values for stroke volume (9.9 ml/beat), cardiac output (1.0 L/min), arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-v O2 diff, 2.4 ml/L), and systolic blood pressure (10 mmHg), with no differences in heart rate or diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was higher (2.11 mmHg) during DTW. During downhill walking, an exercise performed with reduced cardiac strain, endothelial changes, and reduced metabolic demand may be responsible for the different responses in TPR and a-v O2 diff. Future work is warranted on whether downhill walking is suitable for higher risk populations.

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G. Patrick Lambert, Timothy L. Bleiler, Ray-Tai Chang, Alan K. Johnson and Carl V. Gisolfi

Eight male runners performed four 2-hr treadmill runs at 65% ~ 0 , m a x in the heat (35"C, 15-20% RH). A different beverage was offered each trial and subjects drank ad libitum for 2 min every 20 min. The beverages were, 6% carbohydrate (CHO) solution (NC 6), 6% carbonated-CHO solution (C 6), 10% CHO solution (NC 10), and 10% carbonated-CHO solution (C 10). NC 6 and C 6 contained 4% sucrose and 2% glucose. NC 10 and C 10 contained high fructose corn syrup. Subjects drank more NC 6 than C 6. Fluid consumption was not different among other trials. During all trials, volume consumed and %ΔPV declined while heart rate and rectal temperature increased (p<0.05). No significant differences occurred between beverages for these variables. Percent body weight lost was greater (p<0.05) for the C 10 trial compared to the NC 6 trial. Neither sweat rate, percent fluid replaced, plasma [Na+], [K+], osmolality, percent of drink volume emptied from the stomach, or glucose concentration differed among trials. Plasma [K+] and osmolality increased (p<0.05) over time. Ratings of fullness and thirst were not different among beverages, although both perceptions increased (p<0.05) with time. It is concluded that (a) carbonation decreased the consumption of the 6% CHO beverage; (b) fluid homeostasis and thermoregulation were unaffected by the solutions ingested; and (c) fluid consumption decreased with time, while ratings of fullness and thirst increased.

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Jill A. Kanaley, Richard A. Boileau, Benjamin H. Massey and James E. Misner

Changes in muscular efficiency as it relates to age were examined during inclined submaximal treadmill walking in 298 boys ages 7–15 years. Furthermore, the changes in efficiency with increased work intensity (67–90% V̇O2max) were studied. Efficiency was expressed as submaximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and was calculated mathematically as energy out/energy in = (vertical distance) (wt of subject)/(V̇O2 L • min−1) (kcal equivalent). Efficiency, calculated mathematically, was found to significantly increase (p<.01) with age, with the younger children (<9 yrs) being less efficient than the older children (13–15 yrs). These values ranged from 12.8% for the youngest boys (<9 yrs) to 16.4% for the oldest boys (13–15 yrs). In addition, efficiency significantly increased in a linear fashion (p<.01) during submaximal workloads within each age group. No significant interactions (p>.05) between age and workload were found. These values are lower than gross efficiency values during cycling previously reported in the literature for adults; however, they support earlier findings that children increase in efficiency with age and work intensity, regardless if expressed as efficiency or V̇O2 (ml • kg−1 •min−1). These findings suggest that parameters associated with growth and development may influence muscular efficiency with age.

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Michael W. Beets, Kenneth H. Pitetti and Bo Fernhall

The purpose of this study was to twofold: to determine reliability of peak performance as measured by peak heart rate (HRpeak) during the Progressive Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and a treadmill stress test (TM); and to compare the PACER and the TM. The sample consisted of 42 participants 8 to 21 years old with mild mental retardation. Participants completed two PACERs followed by two TMs separated by a minimum of 48 hr. Data collected were HR for the PACER and TM; PACER laps completed; and TM endurance time (min). Intraclass correlations were computed separately for males and females in order to assess the reliability of PACER laps, HRpeak, and TM time. Results indicated high reliability for both males and females on PACER laps and TM HRpeak, and for males on PACER HR and TM time; moderate reliability was observed for females on PACER HRpeak and TM time. No significant differences were detected within or among trials. These findings indicate that youth with mild mental retardation exhibit consistent peak performance on the PACER and TM tests; therefore, PACER can be used for surveillance of aerobic fitness in this population.

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Nicola C. Sutton, David J. Childs, Oded Bar-Or and Neil Armstrong

The purpose of this study was to develop a nonmotorized treadmill sprint test (ExNMT) to assess children’s short-term power output, to establish the test’s repeatability, and to compare the results to corresponding Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) measurements. Nineteen children (aged 10.9±0.3 years) completed 2 ExNMTs and 2 WAnTs. Statistical analysis revealed coefficients of repeatability for the ExNMT that compared very favorably with the WAnT for both peak power (26.6 vs. 44.5 W) and mean power (15.3 vs. 42.1 W). The validity of the ExNMT as a test of anaerobic performance is reflected by significant correlations (p ≤.05) with the WAnT (peak power, r = 0.82; mean power, r = 0.88) and reinforced by the relatively high post-exercise blood lactate concentrations (7.1 ± 1.3 vs. 5.6 ± 1.5 mmol · L−1 for the ExNMT and WAnT, respectively). This study has developed a promising laboratory running test with which to examine young people’s short-term power output.

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John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Daniel S. Hsia, William D. Johnson and Catrine Tudor-Locke


Energy expenditure (EE) estimates for a broad age range of youth performing a variety of activities are needed.


106 participants (6–18 years) completed 6 free-living activities (seated rest, movie watching, coloring, stair climbing, basketball dribbling, jumping jacks) and up to 9 treadmill walking bouts (13.4 to 120.7 m/min; 13.4 m/min increments). Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured using the COSMED K4b2 and EE was quantified as youth metabolic equivalents (METy1:VO2/measured resting VO2, METy2:VO2/estimated resting VO2). Age trends were evaluated with ANOVA.


Seated movie watching produced the lowest mean METy1 (6- to 9-year-olds: 0.94 ± 0.13) and METy2 values (13- to 15-year-olds: 1.10 ± 0.19), and jumping jacks produced the highest mean METy1 (13- to 15-year-olds: 6.89 ± 1.47) and METy2 values (16- to 18-year-olds: 8.61 ± 2.03). Significant age-related variability in METy1 and METy2 were noted for 8 and 2 of the 15 evaluated activities, respectively.


Descriptive EE data presented herein will augment the Youth Compendium of Physical Activities.

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Stephanie Chester, Audrey Zucker-Levin, Daniel A. Melcher, Shelby A. Peel, Richard J. Bloomer and Max R. Paquette

The purpose of this study was to compare knee and hip joint kinematics previously associated with anterior knee pain and metabolic cost among conditions including treadmill running (TR), standard elliptical (SE), and lateral elliptical (LE) in healthy runners. Joint kinematics and metabolic parameters of 16 runners were collected during all 3 modalities using motion capture and a metabolic system, respectively. Sagittal knee range of motion (ROM) was greater in LE (P < .001) and SE (P < .001) compared with TR. Frontal and transverse plane hip ROM were greater in LE compared with SE (P < .001) and TR (P < .001). Contralateral pelvic drop ROM was smaller in SE compared with TR (P = .002) and LE (P = .005). Similar oxygen consumption was found during LE and TR (P = .39), but LE (P < .001) and TR (P < .001) required greater oxygen consumption than SE. Although LE yields similar metabolic cost to TR and produces hip kinematics that may help strengthen hip abductors, greater knee flexion and abduction during LE may increase symptoms in runners with anterior knee pain. The findings suggest that research on the implications of elliptical exercise for injured runners is needed.