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Candace M. Hogue, Mary D. Fry, Andrew C. Fry, and Sarah D. Pressman

Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants.

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Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry

-related reasons. Achievement goal perspective theory (AGPT; Nicholls, 1989 ; Roberts, 2012 ) is one framework that has been employed in exercise psychology research to consider how to optimize individuals’ motivation in physical activity settings. Two distinct motivational climates can be created by instructors

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Mary D. Fry, Candace M. Hogue, Susumu Iwasaki, and Gloria B. Solomon

stressor, including altering the meaning or significance of the stressor. There is a scarcity of research examining specific, controllable factors that facilitate the development of psychological coping skills in athletes. A body of research utilizing Nicholls’ achievement goal perspective theory (AGPT

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Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue

both respect and desire feedback from their coaches (i.e., demonstrate coachability). One widely studied theory in sport with practical implications for coaches and athletes is Nicholls’ ( 1984 , 1989 ) achievement goal perspective theory (AGPT). Nicholls postulated ( 1984 , 1989 ) that the leader