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Maureen M. Smith

This article provides a historical overview of the practice of early sport specialization, primarily in the United States. Sport specialization as practiced by young athletes has been a common occurrence in several individual sports for more than 60 years. More recently, focusing on one sport has gained traction as common practice for young athletes involved in team sports. Sport specialization as a topic of research inquiry has been examined by various disciplines in kinesiology to determine the efficacy of the practice, the physiological effects, and the advantages and disadvantages, as well as to offer possible solutions to the drawbacks associated with sport specialization. Popular press outlets, including newspapers, books, magazines, and online sources, have also joined the debate over the merits of sport specialization.

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, João Ribeiro, Francisco Alves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ludovic Seifert, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

. , & Illescas , C. ( 1994 ). Physiologic considerations in age group swimming . In M. Miyashita , Y. Mutoh , & A.B. Richardson (Eds.), Medicine and science in aquatic sports (pp.  199 – 205 ). Basel, Switzerland : Karger . Chollet , D. , Chalies , S. , & Chatard , J.C. ( 2000 ). A new

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Kosuke Kojima, Christopher L. Brammer, Tyler D. Sossong, Takashi Abe, and Joel M. Stager

swimmers remains to be determined. As there is a tendency for training paradigms to rapidly trickle down from the elite, collegiate swimming programs, it is not surprising to find that RST is becoming increasingly common in age-group swimming programs. However, because of the limited data regarding the

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Shaun Abbott, Goshi Yamauchi, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Castiglioni, James Salter, and Stephen Cobley

. 21 Furthermore, arm propelling efficiency values shown in the current study align with previous studies in age-group swimmers. 22 Considered together, findings provide valuable implications for evaluating performance development across and within age-group swimming. For example, differences in youth

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Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Marco Cardinale, Corrado Lupo, and Gennaro Boccia

Psychol . 2019 ; 10 : 1437 . doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01437 21. Abbott S , Hogan C , Castiglioni MT , et al . Maturity-related developmental inequalities in age-group swimming: the testing of ‘Mat-CAPs’ for their removal . J Sci Med Sport . 2021 ; 24 ( 4 ): 397 – 404 . PubMed ID: 33172611

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J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch, and Travis A. Flitton

.), Handbook of sport psychology ( 3rd ed. , pp.  621 – 641 ). Hoboken, NJ : Wiley . Eynon , R. , Kitchen , P. , & Semotiuk , D. ( 1980 ). The economics of age-group swimming in Ontario . Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 5 , 132 – 136 . Fredricks , J.A. , & Eccles , J.S. ( 2004