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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

The increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in young, physically active females remains a pertinent and timely topic. In the last 5 years, the number of PubMed citations related to ACL risk in females has doubled. Females remain at greater risk than males for ACL injury ( Agel

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Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman and Laurie Wideman

Epidemiological research has shown female athletes are up to three times more likely to suffer a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes in similar sports ( Prodromos, Han, Rogowski, Joyce, & Shi, 2007 ). These ACL injuries and associated surgeries result in

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Sandra J. Shultz

Despite extensive research, we still do not fully understand the biological mechanisms that underlie a female's increased susceptibility for suffering a noncontact ACL injury. While sex differences in neuromuscular control are often implicated, prevention efforts addressing these differences have not resulted in a profound or sustainable reduction in injury rates. This paper will explore two likely scenarios that explain this greater susceptibility in females: (1) females have a structurally weaker ligament that is more prone or susceptible to failure at a given load (scenario #1), or (2) females develop less knee protection and experiences higher relative loads on the ACL (scenario #2). While we have learned much over the last two decades about ACL injury risk in females, much remains unknown. Continued research is of paramount importance if we are to effectively identify those females who are at greatest risk for injury and effectively reduce their susceptibility through appropriate interventions.

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scholastic athletics, an exponential rise in musculoskeletal trauma accompanied the explosion of female sports participation; mostly regarding knee injuries which comprise up to 50% of all sporting activities. Specifically, the incidence of patellofemoral (PF) pain (25%/>2x) and anterior cruciate ligament

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: What Does the Future Hold for Optimizing Knee-Joint Function? Sandra J. Shultz * Randy J. Schmitz * 1 02 2020 9 1 72 78 10.1123/kr.2019-0057 kr.2019-0057 The Changing Landscape of Sport Concussion Kevin M. Guskiewicz * Samuel R. Walton * 1 02 2020 9 1 79 85 10

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Bradley D. Hatfield, Calvin M. Lu and Jo B. Zimmerman

secondary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention and the future of research on this devastating injury. She described considerable advances in risk identification and prevention over the past 20 years and posed many questions regarding the most effective training and rehabilitation approaches to

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Daniel Gould

-literacy skills (such as proper jump-landing technique) can lead to greater injury potential. For example, researchers studying knee injuries in female athletes have discovered that improper jump-landing mechanics (a lack of physical literacy) is related to the likelihood of ACL (anterior cruciate ligament

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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke

of a muscle or muscle group, there may be less apparent costs, such as injury risk. Ninety percent of professional dancers sustain an injury in their career, with 75% sustaining a lower-extremity injury ( Schoene, 2007 ). The rates of anterior-cruciate-ligament reconstruction alone are similar to