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Ted M. Butryn, Matthew A. Masucci, and jay a. johnson

While most professional sports quickly postponed their seasons due to COVID-19, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) took a decidedly contrarian approach as president Dana White continued to promote UFC 249 until pressure forced its cancelation on April 9, 2020. Drawing from work on sport and spectacle and the media as well as sport management scholarship on crisis management, the authors provide a commentary on the mediated spectacle of White’s (eventually successful) efforts to promote UFC 249 during the pandemic. Drawing from numerous media sources, they discuss how White sought to control the public narrative in several key ways. The authors further explore how White decried the seriousness of the pandemic while centralizing the UFC’s place in the U.S. sporting landscape. Finally, the authors discuss how White’s efforts might both help and hinder the UFC as a mainstream sports promotion.

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Brian M. Mills

economists have been among the sharpest critics of the NCAA’s extraction of value from college athlete labor ( Bergman & Logan, 2020 ; Blair, 2018 ; Kahn, 2007 ), serving as expert witnesses and filing amicus briefs in support of college athletes across various cases ( Alston v. NCAA, 2020 ; O’Bannon v

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Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite

finding from the data was the importance of growing and developing players and labor. Therefore, we added theories on athlete labor (human capital theory, marginal revenue product, and resource-based view) to our literature review (see Figure  1 ). Next, we returned to the data and introduced the second