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Lisa A. Kihl and Vicki Schull

Globally, sport governance systems have experienced a democratic shift in terms of expanding the forms and mechanisms of athlete representation across international, national, and local sports’ governing bodies (e.g.,  Geeraert, Alm, & Groll, 2013 ; Jackson & Richie, 2007 ; Thibault, Kihl

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Elaine Chiao Ling Yang, Michelle Hayes, Jinyan Chen, Caroline Riot, and Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

Contemporary sport culture is characterized as highly masculinized, where female athletes are continually marginalized in traditional media. Despite evidence suggesting that media representation of athletes has a meaningful impact on social outcomes and participation rates of women and girls, little is known about gendered representations of athletes on social media and in the context of mega-sporting events. This paper examines the gendered representations of athletes on Twitter during the 2018 Commonwealth Games using framing theory. A total of 133,338 tweets were analyzed using sentiment and word-frequency analyses. Results indicate gender differences concerning athlete representation on Twitter, albeit marginal. In particular, the findings reveal that seemingly neutral words (e.g., “dedicated,” “talented,” and “hard working”) could carry gendered connotations. Recommendations are provided to guide stakeholders to advance a more inclusive sport culture through the strategic use of social media during mega-sporting events.

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Brody J. Ruihley and Bo Li

. Many of the commentaries in this special issue focus on sport media and communication covering various topics, including legacy media (television and newspapers), digital media platforms (Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok), athlete representation, crisis communication, fake news, and media framing

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Megan C. Piché and Michael L. Naraine

primarily composed of gender stereotypes and traditional female attributes, such as beauty and esthetics ( Romney & Johnson, 2020 ). Romney and Johnson discovered that female athletesrepresentation on sport communication Instagram accounts was primarily of a sexualized nature, reinforcing gender

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Danielle Sterba, Jessie N. Stapleton, and Winston Kennedy

supercrip model on an individual level, whereas other sources have emphasized negative consequences and called for action to re-evaluate this model of athlete representation ( Martin, 2017 ). To fully investigate how the supercrip model affects athletes themselves, society, and culture, it is necessary to

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Ellea Bachmeier, and Taylor Mair

Gender or gender identity —identification of oneself as male, female, or nonbinary (American Psychological Association [ APA], 2016 )—has always played a role in how the world views sport, an activity associated with masculinity. Although there has been an increase in female athlete

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Carter A. Rockhill, Jonathan E. Howe, and Kwame J.A. Agyemang

. Compliance would be based around Title IX guidelines, such as meeting the requirements of an adapted three-prong test ( Office for Civil Rights, 2003 ). The adapted three prongs are: (a) racial DEI within senior-level administration and coaching positions is, at minimum, proportionate to student athlete

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Melody Alanis, George B. Cunningham, and Ashley Desimone

, physical ability, age, gender, social class, and sexual orientation, among other characteristics, all influence sport participation rates ( Cunningham, 2019 ). Beyond participation among athletes, representation and experiences in coaching and leadership positions are also skewed, as men ( Cunningham et

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Niels Boysen Feddersen and Simon Edward Phelan

duty of care in sports in its fullest sense. Doing so would entail athlete representation at the board level of NGBs and funding organizations, such as Sport England and UK Sport. Neither Sport England, UK Sport, nor the English Institute of Sport have active athletes on their boards, and such