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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Britton W. Brewer

mentally “blocked” ( Day et al., 2006 ; Maaranen et al., 2017 ). Some athletes are able to perform the skills temporarily (up to a few times) when something about the environment is modified to reduce the potential negative consequences of balking, such as when using a spotter ( Maaranen et al., 2017

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Annamari Maaranen, Erica G. Beachy, Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Thaddeus J. France, and Albert J. Petitpas

Mental blocks, phenomena in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic skills, are well known but poorly understood. Study 1 was designed to assess mental blocks in gymnastics and determine if such blocks are distinct from related conditions, such as slumps, choking, and fear of injury. Mental blocks were reported to have unique characteristics and to affect backward moving skills. Study 2 was a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 5 gymnasts currently experiencing mental blocks on backward moving skills. Such block is called flikikammo and was described as cycling on and off, spreading to other events and skills, affecting visualization, and worsening when performance of the affected skills was forced by coaches. The findings are the first to detail the experience of gymnasts currently experiencing the condition. Additional research may help identify ways to alleviate and/or prevent flikikammo.

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Georgia A. Bird, Mary L. Quinton, and Jennifer Cumming

to control intrusive thoughts and anxiety ( Balk et al., 2013 ; Martinent et al., 2015 ), whereas uses of expressive suppression were found to inhibit performance ( Wagstaff, 2014 ). Sport is a demanding and stressful environment in which athletes experience many emotions during training and

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis, and Henrik Gustafsson

To be successful in competitive sport, athletes are required to invest hours of intense training and perform effectively under pressure ( Balk, Adriaanse, De Ridder, & Evers, 2013 ; Isoard-Gautheur, Guillet-Descas, & Gustafsson, 2016 ). Furthermore, athletes are required to manage stressors

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani, and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences . Behav Res Methods . 2007 ; 39 ( 2 ): 175 – 191 . PubMed ID: 17695343 doi:10.3758/BF03193146 17695343 10.3758/BF03193146 12. Boonstra AM , Preuper HR , Balk GA , Stewart RE . Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe

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Leila Ghamkhar, Somayeh Amiri Arimi, and Amir H. Kahlaee

.1016/j.jelekin.2009.11.002 10.1016/j.jelekin.2009.11.002 26. Boonstra AM , Preuper HRS , Balk GA , Stewart RE . Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the visual analogue scale for pain in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain . Pain . 2014 ; 155 ( 12 ): 2545 – 2550