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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Britton W. Brewer

mentally “blocked” ( Day et al., 2006 ; Maaranen et al., 2017 ). Some athletes are able to perform the skills temporarily (up to a few times) when something about the environment is modified to reduce the potential negative consequences of balking, such as when using a spotter ( Maaranen et al., 2017

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Annamari Maaranen, Erica G. Beachy, Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Thaddeus J. France, and Albert J. Petitpas

Mental blocks, phenomena in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic skills, are well known but poorly understood. Study 1 was designed to assess mental blocks in gymnastics and determine if such blocks are distinct from related conditions, such as slumps, choking, and fear of injury. Mental blocks were reported to have unique characteristics and to affect backward moving skills. Study 2 was a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 5 gymnasts currently experiencing mental blocks on backward moving skills. Such block is called flikikammo and was described as cycling on and off, spreading to other events and skills, affecting visualization, and worsening when performance of the affected skills was forced by coaches. The findings are the first to detail the experience of gymnasts currently experiencing the condition. Additional research may help identify ways to alleviate and/or prevent flikikammo.

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Yannick A. Balk, Marieke A. Adriaanse, Denise T.D. de Ridder, and Catharine Evers

Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in alleviating choking under pressure (main study). The pilot study showed that pressure resulted in decreased performance and this effect was partially mediated by increased arousal. The main study, a field study, showed that whereas the choking effect was observed in the control condition, reappraisal and, particularly, distraction were effective emotion regulation strategies in helping people to cope instead of choke under pressure. These findings suggest that interventions that aim to prevent choking under pressure could benefit from including emotion regulation strategies.

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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle, and Jamie Poolton

feel excited to perform against our rivals.” Accordingly, research has indicated that reappraisal can be an effective way for players to cope (e.g., Balk, Adriaanse, De Ridder, & Evers, 2013 ) and perform better (e.g., Brooks, 2014 ) under pressure. Reappraisal may also influence relationships

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Georgia A. Bird, Mary L. Quinton, and Jennifer Cumming

to control intrusive thoughts and anxiety ( Balk et al., 2013 ; Martinent et al., 2015 ), whereas uses of expressive suppression were found to inhibit performance ( Wagstaff, 2014 ). Sport is a demanding and stressful environment in which athletes experience many emotions during training and

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis, and Henrik Gustafsson

To be successful in competitive sport, athletes are required to invest hours of intense training and perform effectively under pressure ( Balk, Adriaanse, De Ridder, & Evers, 2013 ; Isoard-Gautheur, Guillet-Descas, & Gustafsson, 2016 ). Furthermore, athletes are required to manage stressors

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

education often balk at conversations that start with policy, the reality is that most policy is created in reaction to a previous inaction. That is certainly the issue here, as well. As Pyke ( 2018 ) noted, this type of inaction, referred to as institutional betrayal, encompasses “the wrongdoings and harm

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Leonardo S. Fortes, Maria E.C. Ferreira, Heloiana Faro, Eduardo M. Penna, and Sebastião S. Almeida

sports-based videogames as a prematch activity ( Thompson et al., 2020 ). Thompson et al. ( 2020 ) showed that ∼10% of English academy players reported playing video games as a prematch activity. Balk and Englert ( 2020 ) also report that playing video games puts additional strain on athletes instead of