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Simon Avrillon, Boris Jidovtseff, François Hug, and Gaël Guilhem

Purpose:

Muscle strengthening is commonly based on the use of isoinertial loading, whereas variable resistances such as pneumatic loading may be implemented to optimize training stimulus. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of the ratio between pneumatic and isoinertial resistance on the force–velocity relationship during ballistic movements.

Methods:

A total of 15 participants performed 2 concentric repetitions of ballistic bench-press movements with intention to throw the bar at 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, and 90% of the maximal concentric repetition with 5 resistance ratios including 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, or 0% of pneumatic resistance, the additional load being isoinertial. Force-, velocity-, and power-time patterns were assessed and averaged over the concentric phase to determine the force–velocity and power–velocity relationships for each resistance ratio.

Results:

Each 25% increase in the pneumatic part in the resistance ratio elicited higher movement velocity (+0.11 ± 0.03 m/s from 0% to 80% of the concentric phase) associated with lower force levels (–43.6 ± 15.2 N). Increased isoinertial part in the resistance ratio resulted in higher velocity toward the end of the movement (+0.23 ± 0.01 m/s from 90% to 100%).

Conclusions:

The findings show that the resistance ratio could be modulated to develop the acceleration phase and force toward the end of the concentric phase (pneumatic-oriented resistance). Inversely, isoinertial-oriented resistance should be used to develop maximal force and maximal power. Resistance modality could, therefore, be considered an innovative variable to modulate the training stimulus according to athletic purposes.

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Daniel Boullosa

, Morin JB . Optimal force–velocity profile in ballistic movements—altius: citius or fortius? Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2012 ; 44 ( 2 ): 313 – 322 . PubMed ID: 21775909 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822d757a 21775909 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822d757a 6. Paavolainen LM , Nummela AT , Rusko HK

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Manuel Terraza-Rebollo and Ernest Baiget

accuracy. Although it has been shown that CT improves SSC explosive movements, such as sprint, countermovement jump, throws, and upper body ballistic movements, 6 – 9 , 12 , 16 , 23 our findings did not show any improvement in tennis serve velocity or any decrease in accuracy. However, we found a slight

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Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Rivière, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin, and Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

, Rejc E , Di Prampero PE , Belli A , Morin JB . Optimal force-velocity profile in ballistic movements—altius: citius or fortius? Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2012 ; 44 ( 2 ): 313 – 322 . PubMed ID: 21775909 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822d757a 21775909 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822d757a 2. Samozino P

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Steffi L. Colyer, Keith A. Stokes, James L.J. Bilzon, Danny Holdcroft, and Aki I.T. Salo

months . J Sports Sci . 2009 ; 27 : 397 – 404 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410802549751 10.1080/02640410802549751 19191166 7. Samozino P , Rejc E , Di Prampero PE , Belli A , Morin JB . Optimal force-velocity profile in ballistic movements—altius: citius or fortius? Med Sci Sports Exerc

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Ramón Marcote-Pequeño, Amador García-Ramos, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Jorge M. González-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Gómez, and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

doi:10.1055/s-0035-1547283 25806588 10.1055/s-0035-1547283 19. Samozino P , Rejc E , Di Prampero P , Belli A , Morin J . Optimal force–velocity profile in ballistic movements—altius: citius or fortius? Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2012 ; 44 ( 2 ): 313 – 322 . PubMed ID: 21775909 doi:10

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Abderrahmane Rahmani, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin, and Baptiste Morel

in ballistic movements—altius: citius or fortius? Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2012 ; 44 ( 2 ): 313 – 322 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822d757a 21775909 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822d757a 15. Kawamori N , Haff GG . The optimal training load for the development of muscular power . J Strength Cond

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Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Antonio J. Morales-Artacho, and Slobodan Jaric

jumps . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2014 ; 114 : 1703 – 1714 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-014-2901-2 10.1007/s00421-014-2901-2 24819449 17. Samozino P , Rejc E , Di Prampero PE , Belli A , Morin JB . Optimal force–velocity profile in ballistic movements—altius: citius or rortius? Med Sci

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Amador García-Ramos and Slobodan Jaric

): 178 – 185 . doi:10.1123/jab.2015-0162 26540734 10.1123/jab.2015-0162 3. Samozino P , Rejc E , Di Prampero PE , Belli A , Morin JB . Optimal force-velocity profile in ballistic movements—altius: citius or fortius? Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2012 ; 44 ( 2 ): 313 – 322 . PubMed ID

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, and G. Gregory Haff

Optimum levels of lower-limb muscle power constitute a major determinant of performance in a variety of sports—especially those that require the execution of explosive or ballistic movements such as sprinting or jumping. 1 The assessment and improvement of muscle power are therefore relevant. 1