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David S. Haydon, Ross A. Pinder, Paul N. Grimshaw and William S.P. Robertson

classifications, 1 as well as performance outcomes. 2 Despite an increase in popularity and research in wheelchair rugby (WCR), there is currently a limited understanding of how the level of activity limitation affects key kinematic variables and their impact on chair acceleration and sprint performance

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Annemarie M.H. de Witte, Monique A.M. Berger, Daan J.J. Bregman and Dirk Jan H.E.J. Veeger

high seating position for shooting and its assumed negative effect on WMP. The conditions for this trade-off are highly individual, specified by the athlete’s classification, skills, and field position. A prerequisite to quantify the relationship between performance and wheelchair settings is to have

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James M. Rhodes, Barry S. Mason, Thomas A.W. Paulson and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

has revealed that WCR is an intermittent sport with players typically covering distances of 2500 and 4600 m during competition 3 , 4 and the majority of time spent performing low-speed activities interspersed with frequent bouts of high-speed activities. 3 Classification has also been shown to

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Raúl Reina, Aitor Iturricastillo, Rafael Sabido, Maria Campayo-Piernas and Javier Yanci

among IFCPF functional classes, demonstrating the usability of those tests for FPCP evaluation. Methods Participants A total of 132 international parafootballers (age = 25.8 [6.7] y; training experience = 10.7 [7.5] y) classified according to the IFCPF classification rules participated in this study

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Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer

based on their bodies’ degree of function to determine who they will compete with and against ( International Paralympic Committee [IPC], 2015a , 2015b ; Steadward & Peterson, 1997 ). Classification provides a structure for competition in parasport ( IPC, 2015a ; Tweedy, Beckman, & Connick, 2014

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Daan J.J. Bregman, Monique A.M. Berger, Annemarie M.H. de Witte and Dirk-Jan (H.) E.J. Veeger

In most Paralympic sports, a classification system is used to attain fair competition among athletes with various levels of impairment. The Paralympic classification systems aim to promote sports participation of people with disabilities by minimizing the impact of eligible types of impairment on

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Yves C. Vanlandewijck, Christina Evaggelinou, Daniel D. Daly, Siska Van Houtte, Joeri Verellen, Vanessa Aspeslagh, Robby Hendrickx, Tine Piessens and Bjorn Zwakhoven

The player classification system in wheelchair basketball (composed of four classes) is based on an analysis of players’ functional resources through game observation and field-testing. This study examines if the classes are in the correct proportion relative to each other. During the Wheelchair Basketball World Championships in Sydney 1998, 12 teams were videotaped for three 40-min games. Eighty-eight male players were retained for a detailed performance analysis by means of the Comprehensive Basketball Grading System (CBGS). Although a slight underestimation of the functional potential of Class II and III players was noted, it was concluded that the player classification system in wheelchair basketball proportionally represents the functional potential of the players.

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Kenneth J. Richter, Carol Adams-Mushett, Michael S. Ferrara and B. Cairbre McCann

Classification is intended to provide fair competition for athletes. Each disability group has developed different methods and techniques of classification to ensure fair competition. However, the 1992 Paralympics will use integrated classification for swimmers from the International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD), the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF), and the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). The integrated swimming classification is said to be based on the research of Counsilman. The developers of the integrated swimming classification system have assigned point values for body parts involved in swimming propulsion. Counsilman (1977) refutes the assignment of points to swimming propulsion since it is unscientific and based on subjective evaluation. Further, the integrated swimming classification has yet to undergo extensive field testing to determine its reliability and validity. Additionally there are physiological, sports technical, and statistical problems with the integrated system.

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Gale M. Gehlsen and Joan Karpuk

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the National Wheelchair Athletic Association (NWAA) classification system in swimming events. The NWAA records of freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke in nine classifications of both male and female athletes were used (N=1,256). Each athlete’s speed was calculated from the reported time and distance. There was a significant difference in classification for all events except the paraplegic 50- and 100-m backstroke events. Post hoc data analyses within classification for the 50- and 100-m freestyle events indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classifications. Post hoc data analyses within classifications for the 50-m butterfly event indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classes except Class V and Class VI athletes. Tetraplegic within classification post hoc data analyses indicated significant differences between 1A and both Classes 1B and 1C. Gender differences were statistically indicated for all events. The logic of the medical classification system of the NWAA cannot be totally supported by these data. However, the results do not offer clear direction for any combination of classes.

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Walter E. Davis and Terry L. Rizzo

The detrimental effects of labeling persons as disabled is well known to special educators, many of whom have advocated doing away with labels altogether. However, as a fundamental of science, classification is extremely important. The problem may not be the labeling process per se but one of societal attitudes. Labels are both a product and provocation of attitudes. A review of the current classification systems pinpoints eight characteristics that are problematic in classifying motor disorders. Gibson’s (1977) theory of affordance offers one way of providing a more accurate and useful labeling system, and at the same time addressing, in part, the negative attitude problem. In an affordance approach, the label applies to the behavior as a product of the person/environment system rather than to the person alone, which is the traditional approach. The new classification system offered here, although not complete, differs from the traditional systems in several ways and is seen as useful to researchers and educators alike.