This research provides insight into the complex relationship between consumer response to persuasion attempts and skepticism, suggesting that erstwhile targets may be swayed by campaigns pitched as a form of entertainment. The authors examine consumer responses to an important sponsorship-leveraging tool: sponsorship-linked advertising (SLA). A theoretical model of consumer response to SLA is proposed, drawing on important resistance mechanisms to persuasion, including ad skepticism, attributed advertiser motives, and the nature of thoughts. Results confirm existing research on consumer skepticism suggesting its transitory nature and hence potential for advertisers to strategically temper it through specific cues in ad execution. Differential processing between SLA and traditional advertising is supported, such that SLA elicits more favorable cognitive response.
Sarah Kelly, Len Coote, T. Bettina Cornwell and Anna McAlister
Robert F. Potter and Justin Robert Keene
An experiment investigates the impact of fan identification on the cognitive and emotional processing of sports-related news media. Two coaches were featured; one conceptualized as negatively valenced the other positively. Participants completed a fan identification scale before stimuli presentation. While watching the press conferences, heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle activity were recorded as indices of cognitive resource allocation, emotional arousal, and aversive motivation activation respectively. Self-report measures were collected after each stimulus. Results show that highly identified fans process sports-related news content differently than moderate fans, allocating more cognitive resources and exhibiting greater aversive reactions to the negatively valenced coach. Comparisons between the self-report and psychophysiology data suggest that the latter may be less susceptible to social desirability response bias when emotional reaction to sports messages are concerned.
Kostas Alexandris, Rodoula H. Tsiotsou and Jeffrey D. James
The objective of this research was to test the application of an alternative hierarchy of effects model (affect, cognition, and conation) in the context of sponsorship. Activity involvement and team attachment (affect) were proposed to influence sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition), which in turn were proposed to influence consumer behavioral intentions (conation). Fans of a professional basketball team in Greece (N = 384) participated in the study. The results provided support for the alternative hierarchy of effects model and its application in the context of sponsorship. Team attachment (affect) was shown to have both a direct and indirect relationship with behavioral intentions (conation), through its influence on sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition). Furthermore, the attraction dimension of involvement was shown to influence team attachment. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.
Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro
prelude to other forms of gambling. Thus, exploring why participants play and what impact this activity has on gambling-related cognitions and behaviors is paramount for sport marketers and managers. Finally, this investigation will help to inform states that will have to make upcoming decisions on
Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro
problem behavior, namely problem gambling among participants. The gambling literature has uncovered certain personality traits (e.g., impulsivity) and biased cognitions (e.g., gambling-related cognitive distortions) that positively predict risky and/or potentially problem-based gambling behavior ( Harris
, Gawronski, & Balas, 2017 ; Kurdi & Banaji, 2017 ) have suggested the existence of two distinctive cognition routes, including associative evaluation (implicit) and propositional reasoning (explicit). These two processes are independent of each other, leading them to have their own unique cognitive effects
T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh
and can influence perception and cognition of individuals in groups ( Druskat & Wolff, 2001 ; Lewin, 1945 ). Group atmosphere, hereafter called atmosphere for short, and hereafter treated similarly to the other emotions examined, is more precisely a measure of an individual’s perception of the
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
though appraisal and attribution are distinct concepts that mediate the relationship between an event (i.e., stimulation) and consumption emotions, little is known about how these two types of cognition have relatively different impacts on emotions. Madrigal reported that negative emotions are more
social psychology literature, which broadly refers to the influential advantage of negative information over cognition and behavior ( Ito et al., 1998 ). Specifically, people tend to pay more attention to negative information in comparison with neutral or positive information. Berger, Sorensen, and
Akira Asada, Yong Jae Ko and Wonseok (Eric) Jang
how these socializing agents influence people’s cognitions, affect, and behaviors at the initial stage of sport socialization. Although researchers have examined how family members and friends influence people’s sports consumption behaviors in the domain of word-of-mouth research (e.g., Asada & Ko