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Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham

the types and tones of thoughts and opinions generated around the athletes may differ depending on the gender of the athlete, with commenters on male body-image athletes more likely to use profanity than on women body-image athletes. A gender disparity was also identified in terms of ESPN’s Instagram

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Brennan K. Berg, Michael Hutchinson and Carol C. Irwin

This case study illustrates the complexity of decision making in public organizations, specifically highlighting the public health concern of drowning disparities in the United States. Using escalation of commitment theory, students must consider various factors in evaluating the overextended commitments of a local government in a complicated sociopolitical environment and with vital public needs that must be addressed through a local parks and recreation department. Facing a reduction in allocated resources, the department director, Claire Meeks, is tasked with determining which programs will receive higher priority despite the varied feedback from the management staff. To ensure students are provided a realistic scenario, this case offers a combination of fictional and real-life events from Splash Mid-South, an innovative swimming program in Memphis, Tennessee. Students must critically evaluate not only the merits of the swimming program, but the other sport, recreation, and parks programs that also merit an equitable share of the limited resources. Therefore, students are placed in a decision-making role that is common to managers of both public and private organizations. This case study is appropriate for both undergraduate and graduate sport management courses, with specific application to strategic management, organizational behavior, and recreation or leisure topics.

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Daniel Wigfield, Ryan Snelgrove, Luke R. Potwarka, Katie Misener and Laura Wood

to improve the camp enrolment disparity across all regions and maximize its revenue potential, PGC Basketball spent $300,000 on marketing efforts. Specific details regarding marketing efforts and camp programming details can be found in a later section of this profile. Table 1 PGC Basketball 2017

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Jörg Vianden and Elizabeth A. Gregg

During the first two decades of the 21st century, growing social inequalities and persistent power disparities between people from different classes, races, sexual orientations, genders, and ability statuses have marked life in the United States. Atop the social ladder sit elite heterosexual white

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin

rate disparities . Personnel Psychology, 56, 607 – 631 . doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x Jones , D.F. , Brooks , D.D. , & Mak , J.Y. ( 2008 ). Examining sport management programs in the United States . Sport Management Review, 11, 77 – 91 . doi

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Molly Hayes Sauder and Cheryl R. Rode

-related sexual harassment in the United States: Using meta-analysis to explain reported rate disparities . Personnel Psychology, 56, 607 – 631 . doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x Jones , D.F. , Brooks , D.D. , & Mak , J.Y. ( 2008 ). Examining sport management

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Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick and Jaime R. DeLuca

experience in the undergraduate sport management program. Although prior work has accurately demonstrated demographic disparities in the classroom ( Jones et al., 2008 ; Moore et al., 2004 ; Schwab et al., 2013 ), a rich portrayal of the lived experiences of female students in sport management programs is

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Dustin A. Hahn

female athletes even if evidence of disparity in type of treatment persists in social media. Race Equally important, though studied with perhaps less fervor, is the issue of racial representation in sport media today. Findings during the 2012 Olympics revealed an emphasis on White athletes over

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Sally Shaw and John Amis

Studies that have examined the disparity in investment between men's and women's sports are rare and are generally distributional in nature. Little research has been carried out that has explored the reasons why managers tend to invest in men's sport instead of women's. Given the rise in sponsorship spending, and the increasingly strategic nature of such investments, this represents an important gap in the literature. The purpose of this paper was to explore conceptually and empirically some of the possible reasons for this disparity. By examining the agreements made by the sponsors of two international women's sports teams, we found support for the contention that the values and beliefs of decision makers, the media representation of sport, and mimetic pressures on managers combine to heavily influence decisions about what and who to sponsor. We also suggest that if such factors can be overcome, women's sport has the potential to be a very useful marketing tool for certain firms.

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Joe Cobbs, B. David Tyler, Jonathan A. Jensen and Kwong Chan

Accessing and exploiting organizational resources are essential capabilities for competitive sport organizations, particularly those engaged in motorsports, where teams lacking resources frequently dissolve. Corporate sponsorship represents a common method for resource acquisition, yet not all sponsorships equally benefit the sponsored organization. Sponsorship utility can be dependent on institutional dynamics such as league governance that produces competitive disparities. Through this study we extend the resource-based view to assert that sponsorships vary in their propensity to contribute to team survival, warranting prioritization in sponsorship strategy based on access to different sponsor resources. To empirically investigate the influence of a variety of sponsorships, survival analysis modeling was used to examine 40 years of corporate sponsorship of Formula One racing teams. One finding from the longitudinal analysis was that sponsorships offering financial or performance-based resources enhance team survival to a greater degree than operational sponsorships. However, such prioritization is subject to team experience, changes in institutional monetary allocation, and diminishing returns.