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The Relationships Among Adolescents’ Drive for Muscularity, Drive for Thinness, Doping Attitudes, and Doping Intentions

Arnaldo Zelli, Fabio Lucidi, and Luca Mallia

This study examined the relative ways in which muscularity and thinness concerns longitudinally influence adolescents’ intentions to use doping substances. It was hypothesized that muscularity and thinness exert their effects on doping intentions by promoting endorsement of positive attitudes toward doping use in male and female adolescents and across different levels of sport involvement. To test this hypothesis, nearly 900 high school adolescents provided questionnaire data on two separate occasions during an academic year. On average, boys, as well as boys and girls who practice some sport, had relatively strong concerns about muscularity, whereas girls showed relatively strong thinness concerns. Boys also expressed more positive attitudes about doping than did girls. Structural equation modeling showed that muscularity and thinness have direct effects on adolescents’ intentions to engage in doping and that muscularity, but not thinness, partly exerts its effects through the endorsement of positive attitudes toward doping.

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How Healthy is a Desire to be Fit and Strong? Drives for Thinness, Leanness, and Muscularity in Women in Weight Training

Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch, and Manuel Waldorf

pathological symptoms in women. The findings showed that competitive female bodybuilding, i.e., a high drive for muscularity, is associated with symptoms of exercise dependence, dietary behavior, supplement use ( Hale, Diehl, Weaver, & Briggs, 2013 ), body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms

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Psychosocial Correlates of Disordered Eating Among Male Collegiate Athletes

Trent A. Petrie, Christy Greenleaf, Jennifer E. Carter, and Justine J. Reel

Few studies have been conducted examining male athletes and eating disorders, even though the sport environment may increase their risk. Thus, little information exists regarding the relationship of putative risk factors to eating disorders in this group. To address this issue, we examined the relationship of eating disorder classification to the risk factors of body image concerns (including drive for muscularity), negative affect, weight pressures, and disordered eating behaviors. Male college athletes (N= 199) from three different NCAA Division I universities participated. Only two athletes were classified with an eating disorder, though 33 (16.6%) and 164 (82.4%), respectively, were categorized as symptomatic and asymptomatic. Multivariate analyses revealed that eating disorder classification was unrelated to the majority of the risk factors, although the eating disorder group (i.e., clinical and symptomatic) did report greater fear of becoming fat, more weight pressures from TV and from magazines, and higher levels of stress than the asymptomatic athletes. In addition, the eating disorder group had higher scores on the Bulimia Test-Revised (Thelen, Mintz, & Vander Wal, 1996), which validated the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (Mintz, O’Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) as a measure of eating disorders with male athletes. These findings suggest that variables that have been supported as risk factors among women in general, and female athletes in particular, may not apply as strongly, or at all, to male athletes.

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Body Dissatisfaction in Collegiate Athletes: Differences Between Sex, Sport Type, and Division Level

Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty, and Alissa Haedt-Matt

, & Tovee, 2009 ; Varnes et al., 2013 ). Female athletes are often the focus of research on body dissatisfaction, although it is experienced by both male and female athletes. Women tend to experience pressure to maintain a specific body weight and shape, while men tend to experience a drive for muscularity

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Eating Behaviors Among Male Bodybuilders and Runners: Application of the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner

specific disorders related to, for example, the drive for muscularity (e.g.,  Chapman & Woodman, 2016 ; Fabris, Longobardi, Prino, & Settanni, 2018 ). Bodybuilding and running are very popular among males (e.g.,  Chapman & Woodman, 2016 ; Devrim, Bilgic, & Hongu, 2018 ; Harris & Peterson, 2020 ). Both

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A Content Analysis of Mental Health Literacy Education for Sport Coaches

Stephen P. Hebard, James E. Bissett, Emily Kroshus, Emily R. Beamon, and Aviry Reich

. , & Steinfeldt , M.C. ( 2011 ). Drive for muscularity and conformity to masculine norms among college football players . Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12 ( 4 ), 324 – 338 . Thomas , B.H. , Ciliska , D. , Dobbins , M. , & Micucci , S. ( 2003 ). A process for

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An Exploration of the Relationship Between Disordered Eating, Exercise Dependence, and Athletic Injury

Carrie B. Scherzer, Jeremy Trenchuk, Meaghan Peters, and Robert Mazury

eating than nonathletes ( Sundgot-Borgen, 1994 ). Other aspects of sport that influence disordered eating are the drives that female athletes have. Specifically, the drive for thinness and the drive for muscularity are associated with athletes with eating disorders ( Hartmann et al., 2018 ). Thus, the

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Pre-post Evaluation of the “Supporting Student-Athlete Mental Wellness” Module for College Coaches

Emily Kroshus, Jessica Wagner, David L. Wyrick, and Brian Hainline

. , & Steinfeldt , M.C. ( 2011 ). Drive for muscularity and conformity to masculine norms among college football players . Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12 ( 4 ), 324 – 338 . doi:10.1037/a0024839 10.1037/a0024839 Van Raalte , J.L. , Cornelius , A.E. , Andrews , S. , Diehl , N.S. , & Brewer , B

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Tone it Down: How Fitness Instructors’ Motivational Comments Shape Women’s Body Satisfaction

Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik, and Colleen Daly

, 30 , 348 – 357 . doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00310.x 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00310.x McCreary , D.R. ( 2007 ). The drive for muscularity scale: Description, psychometrics, and research findings . In J.K. Thompson & G. Cafri (Eds.), The muscular ideal: Psychological, social, and medical

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An Inductive Thematic Analysis of Male Competitive Figure Skaters’ Experiences of Weight Pressure in Sport

Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes . Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15 ( 2 ), 170 – 180 . doi:10.1037/a0031762 10.1037/a0031762 Galli , N. , Petrie , T.A. , Reel , J.J. , Greenleaf , C. , & Carter , J. ( 2015 ). Psychosocial predictors of drive for muscularity in