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Danielle L. Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C. George, and David M. Andrews

data have commonly been provided from a small number of cadaver segmentation studies, 5 limiting the applicability of the data across different populations. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a valid and reliable method for analyzing body composition 6 – 9 and estimating inertial

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Fabio Bertapelli, Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Robert W. Motl, Roberto A. Soares, Marcos M. de Barros-Filho, Wilson D. do Amaral-Junior, and Gil Guerra-Junior

, 2020 ; Moore, Durstine, & Painter, 2016 ), and this should be extended to young individuals with ID ( Matson & Matson, 2015 ). The most accurate laboratory methods of %BF assessment in youth and adults are dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography ( Lohman & Milliken

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw, and Marc Portus

’Brien et al 29 used magnetic resonance imaging scans to obtain muscle volume, which was divided by optimal fascicle length at the angle of peak force, as measured using ultrasound images. Alternatively, this has been achieved using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography. However

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Zachary Merrill, Grace Bova, April Chambers, and Rakié Cham

body mass index (BMI) influence parameters, particularly in large segments such as the thigh and trunk. 16 Thus, the current study, using in vivo dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data, aims to objectively quantify the impact of trunk segmentation method on trunk BSPs in normal weight and morbidly

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Silvia G.R. Neri, Juscelia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David, and Ricardo M. Lima

Ethics Committee (protocol 1.223.636). Body Fat Distribution We assessed body fat distribution using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; General Electric-GE model 8548 BX1L, 2005, DPX lunar type, Encore 2010 software, Rommelsdorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany), as described in our previous study. 5

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Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David, and Ricardo M. Lima

measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (General Electric-GE model 8548 BX1L, 2005, DPX lunar type, Encore 2010 software, Rommelsdorf, Germany), according to procedures described elsewhere. 21 Briefly, subjects laid face up on the DXA table with the body carefully centered. The software

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Bailey Peck, Timothy Renzi, Hannah Peach, Jane Gaultney, and Joseph S. Marino

. *Significant effect of sport ( P  < .05). Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry A whole-body and regional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; GE Lunar Primo Prodigy, Madison, WI; enCORE™ 2011 software, version 15) scan was performed to measure percent body fat. 14 Color mapping indicated areas of high and low

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Bernadette L. Foster, Jeff W. Walkley, and Viviene A. Temple

The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the bone mineral density of women with intellectual disability (WID) and a comparison group (WOID) matched for age and sex. One hundred and five women, ages 21 to 39, M = 29, were tested for their bone mineral density levels at the lumbar spine and three sites of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. No significant difference between groups existed (λ = 0.94, F(4, 98) = 1.68, p = .16, η2 = .06); however, one-sample t tests revealed that bone mineral density for the WID group (n = 35) was significantly lower than zero at the Ward’s triangle (p < .01) and the lumbar spine (p < .05). Approximately one-quarter of WID had low bone density at these two sites, suggesting that WID may be at risk of osteoporotic fracture as they age.

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April J. Chambers, Alison L. Sukits, Jean L. McCrory, and Rakié Cham

Age, obesity, and gender can have a significant impact on the anthropometrics of adults aged 65 and older. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in body segment parameters derived using two methods: (1) a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) subject-specific method (Chambers et al., 2010) and (2) traditional regression models (de Leva, 1996). The impact of aging, gender, and obesity on the potential differences between these methods was examined. Eighty-three healthy older adults were recruited for participation. Participants underwent a whole-body DXA scan (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Mass, length, center of mass, and radius of gyration were determined for each segment. In addition, traditional regressions were used to estimate these parameters (de Leva, 1996). A mixed linear regression model was performed (α = 0.05). Method type was significant in every variable of interest except forearm segment mass. The obesity and gender differences that we observed translate into differences associated with using traditional regressions to predict anthropometric variables in an aging population. Our data point to a need to consider age, obesity, and gender when utilizing anthropometric data sets and to develop regression models that accurately predict body segment parameters in the geriatric population, considering gender and obesity.

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Jason Wicke and Genevieve A. Dumas

Body segment inertial parameters are required as input parameters when the kinetics of human motion is to be analyzed. However, owing to interindividual differences in body composition, noninvasive inertial estimates are problematic. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a relatively new imaging approach that can provide cost- and time-effective means for estimating these parameters with minimal exposure to radiation. With the introduction of a new generation of DXA machines, utilizing a fan-beam configuration, this study examined their accuracy as well as a new interpolative data-reduction process for estimating inertial parameters. Specifically, the inertial estimates of two objects (an ultra-high molecular density plastic rod and an animal specimen) and 50 participants were obtained. Results showed that the fan-beam DXA, along with the new interpolative data-reduction process, provided highly accurate estimates (0.10–0.39%). A greater variance was observed in the center of mass location and moment of inertia estimates, likely as a result of the course end-point location (1.31 cm). However, using a midpoint interpolation of the end-point locations, errors in the estimates were greatly reduced for the center of mass location (0.64–0.92%) and moments of inertia (–0.23 to –0.48%).