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Hannah Cooper and Stacy Winter

Disordered eating is a psychological ailment that befalls many athletes and can persist into retirement. Links have been established between disordered eating and societal and sport-specific pressures; however, little research has focused on the perspective of retired athletes in a time-based sport. The purpose of the current research was to explore the conceptualization of disordered eating in relation to swimming participation, how retirement affects eating patterns, and ways to mitigate disordered eating. Following IPA methodological guidelines, a homogeneous sample of retired swimmers (N = 6) was chosen for semistructured, participant-driven interviews determined by scores on a disordered-eating questionnaire. Three superordinate themes were revealed: (1) pressures unique to swimming, (2) transition to eating pattern awareness, and (3) maintaining ideal eating patterns in retirement. The results revealed a combination of novel findings and expansion of previous data on disordered eating. Suggestions for applications of current findings and for future research are also discussed.

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Justine J. Reel and Diane L. Gill

Seventy-three college female and 84 high school female cheerleaders participated in the current study on eating disorders and pressures within cheerleading. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and CHEER, a measure developed by the authors to identify pressures within cheerleading. A one-way MANOVA indicated significant differences between high school and college cheerleaders on CHEER and SPAS. Correlational analyses revealed a strong relation between SPAS, body dissatisfaction scores, and eating behavior, suggesting that body image is an important predictor for eating disorders in cheerleaders. Moreover, although high school cheerleaders reported fewer pressures than their college counterparts, they exhibited greater body dissatisfaction and disordered eating patterns.

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Robert J. Brustad and Michelle Ritter-Taylor

Psychological processes in sport are inextricably linked to the social contexts within which they occur. However, research and practice in applied sport psychology have shown only marginal concern for the social dimensions of participation. As a consequence of stronger ties to clinical and counseling psychology than to social psychology, the prevailing model of intervention in applied sport psychology has been individually centered. Focus at the individual level has been further bolstered by cognitive emphases in modem psychology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for a balanced consideration of social and personal influences. Four social psychological dimensions of interest will be explored, including athletic subculture membership; athletic identity concerns; social networks of influence; and leadership processes. The relevance of these forms of influence will be examined in relation to applied concerns in the areas of athlete academic performance, overtraining and burnout, and disordered eating patterns. At minimum, consultants need to address contextual and relational correlates of psychological and performance issues.

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Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Richard F. MacLehose, Allison W. Watts, Marla E. Eisenberg, Melissa N. Laska, and Nicole Larson

sector. Although gentle classes may not directly result in large energy expenditure, there may be indirect benefits such as changes in eating patterns as a result of greater body awareness, stress management, and self-care, which could lead to lower energy intake. Furthermore, participating in gentle

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

concentrations was influenced by the adoption of food records. Trials that reported using tools to monitor the eating patterns of participants (3 studies) yielded significant adiponectin increases (ES: −1.373; 95% CI, −2.177 to −0.570; P  < .001; I 2 : 49%; −0.754 μg·mL −1 ). Trials that did not report the use

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Marie H. Murphy, Angela Carlin, Catherine Woods, Alan Nevill, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kyle Ferguson, and Niamh Murphy

use, eating patterns, and weight behaviors in a University population . Am J Health Behav . 2009 ; 33 ( 3 ): 227 – 237 . PubMed ID: 19063644 doi:10.5993/AJHB.33.3.1 10.5993/AJHB.33.3.1 10. Bray S , Born H . Transition to university and vigorous physical activity: implications for health and

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Catherine R. Marinac, Mirja Quante, Sara Mariani, Jia Weng, Susan Redline, Elizabeth M. Cespedes Feliciano, J. Aaron Hipp, Daniel Wang, Emily R. Kaplan, Peter James, and Jonathan A. Mitchell

.drugalcdep.2016.05.025 15. Leech RM , Worsley A , Timperio A , McNaughton SA . Temporal eating patterns: a latent class analysis approach . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act . 2017 ; 14 ( 1 ): 3 . PubMed ID: 28061795 doi:10.1186/s12966-016-0459-6 28061795 10.1186/s12966-016-0459-6 16. Patterson RE

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Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson, and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

: findings from Project EAT . J Psychosom Res . 2002 ; 53 ( 5 ): 963 – 974 . PubMed doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00486-5 12445586 10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00486-5 27. Neumark-Sztainer D , Story M , Hannan PJ , Croll J . Overweight status and eating patterns among adolescents: where do youths stand in

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Justine Chatterton, Trent A. Petrie, Keke L. Schuler, and Camilo Ruggero

dissatisfaction with different aspects of their physique and acknowledged that weight lifting and modifying their eating patterns are key strategies for enhancing their bodies ( Galli & Reel, 2009 ). For male athletes, how they approach (and how much they engage in) muscle-building behaviors is salient and needs

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Kristen Day

options for motorized transportation. Urbanization of rural populations changes the nature of work and transportation (toward less activity) and changes eating patterns toward a more Western, industrialized diet. 7 , 8 In developed countries, in contrast, urban areas are associated with increased