same. However, the underlying mechanisms to transition from traditional toward strategic CSR management, and thus to attain lasting economic and societal benefits, remain unclear. This study takes an entrepreneurship lens to analyze the organizational processes behind CSR policies, practices, and
Cleo Schyvinck, Kathy Babiak, Bram Constandt, and Annick Willem
Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze
), organizational practices (e.g., Greenwood & Suddaby, 2006 ; Lounsbury & Crumley, 2007 ), technologies (e.g., Garud, Jain, & Kumaraswamy, 2002 ; Wang & Swanson, 2007 ), and forms/structures (e.g., Perkmann & Spicer, 2007 ; Tracey, Phillips, & Jarvis, 2011 ). We know less about institutional entrepreneurship
Social entrepreneurship represents a new organizational form reflecting a time of societal change. The concept of social entrepreneurship has in recent years received an increased academic interest from the field of sport management. This review therefore aims to outline the scope and focus of, as well as theoretically position, the utilization of the concept of social entrepreneurship in the current body of peer-reviewed research within the field of sport and social entrepreneurship. Thirty-three English language peer-reviewed articles were selected and analyzed using Gartner’s (1985) variables of entrepreneurship and three schools of thought within social entrepreneurship. The findings show that the scope of research into sport and social entrepreneurship is limited and that sport plays a minor role in the articles. The articles focus on the processes of social entrepreneurship, but the manner in which the concept of social entrepreneurship is used differs between articles and is seldom defined. These findings indicate that much can be done to better understand sport and social entrepreneurship. Emerging directions for future research are provided.
Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite
.1002/1097-4679(195001)6:1<47::AID-JCLP2270060111>3.0.CO;2-I Gurses , K. , & Ozcan , P. ( 2015 ). Entrepreneurship in regulated markets: Framing and collective action to introduce pay TV in the U.S . Academy of Management Journal, 58 ( 6 ), 1709 – 1739 . doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0775 10.5465/amj.2013.0775 Hannah , D
Per G. Svensson, Fredrik O. Andersson, and Lewis Faulk
and development: An overview, critique, and reconstruction . Journal of Sport and Social Issues , 35 ( 3 ), 284 – 305 . doi:10.1177/0193723511416986 10.1177/0193723511416986 Hayhurst , L.M. ( 2014 ). The ‘girl effect’ and martial arts: Social entrepreneurship and sport, gender and development in
Scott E. Gordon, John B. Bartholomew, Richard B. Kreider, Ronald F. Zernicke, and Mary E. Rudisill
This is an era in which academic units in higher education are expected to do more with less. State- and institutionally-appropriated funding streams are generally decreasing or stagnant. Federal grant funding is at its lowest level in years, and unlikely to rebound anytime soon. Institutions are restricting tuition increases to allow greater accessibility to students of limited means as well as to heed public demand for more accountability in the “educational product”. Enrollment growth adds pressure to academic units but rarely results in immediate resources directed to the affected units. To compound this problem, kinesiology is one of the fastest growing majors nationwide. With such mounting pressures on academic units and their leaders, creative entrepreneurial resourcefulness is not only rewarded, but required. This paper presents a series of successful and practical resource-generating strategies from the unique perspectives of units at several different institutions.
Richard B. Kreider and Penny McCullagh
Per G. Svensson and Chad S. Seifried
Sport leaders are redefining organizational paradigms by blending elements from traditional forms of organizing. Leaders of emergent hybrid forms face unique challenges in managing tensions associated with the paradoxical elements they embody. This paper introduces the concept of hybrid organizing and examines its applicability to Sport for Development and Peace (SDP). Specifically, Battilana and Lee’s (2014) multidimensional framework is used to examine the core practices, workforce composition, organizational design, interorganizational relationships, and organizational culture of hybrid SDP entities. Findings from this exploratory empirical work with nine organizations indicate SDP hybrids operate under a multitude of legal structures yet are underlined by shared beliefs that these new forms provide better opportunities for achieving social impact and organizational sustainability. Organizational leaders appear to use a multitude of internal mechanisms for managing the seemingly paradoxical nature of hybrid organizing. Strengths and challenges associated with these efforts were revealed and are critically examined.
Jason R. Carter, Penny McCullagh, and Rick Kreider
Over the past decade, institutions of higher education have been forced to become more innovative and entrepreneurial, seeking creative solutions to budget challenges. This has been particularly important within kinesiology programs, which represent one of the largest growing sectors of higher education over the past 10–15 years. In preparation for the 2016 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Leadership Workshop, a survey was administered by the AKA to capture key institutional classifications (i.e., Carnegie classification, institutional size, public vs. private designation) and department chair or designated administrator perceptions on entrepreneurial issues relevant to their unit. Sixty-eight of 881 units surveyed responded, yielding a response rate of 7.7%. The majority of respondents (67%) indicated a unit funding model that was based on the previous year’s level (i.e., historical budget model). While the majority of respondents reported that their unit is provided with “adequate to plentiful” resources (59%), this varied widely based on institutional classification. Specifically, baccalaureate institutions (Chi-square 18.054, p < .001) and institutions with < 5,000 students (Chi-square 10.433, p & .015) had the least favorable perceptions of unit resource allocation. For the majority of entrepreneurial activities and partnerships (5 of 8 targeted questions), ≥ 50% of the respondents reported “no involvement.” There was a significant mismatch between actual vs. expected time spent by the department chair on fundraising activities (Chi-square 4.627, p = .031), with higher expectations than actual time spent on fundraising. In summary, the AKA survey suggests that there is tremendous heterogeneity in perceptions of and participation in entrepreneurial activities within kinesiology, and that there remains strategic areas of opportunity within the field.