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Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French, and Kevin A. Becker

in individuals with PD, including noncontact boxing ( Combs et al., 2011 ) and Tai Chi ( Hackney & Earhart, 2008 ), which can elicit improvements in balance and posture in this population. Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) are other modalities of alternative exercise that have gained

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Carl G. Mattacola, Carolina Quintana, Jed Crots, Kimberly I. Tumlin, and Stephanie Bonin

Context: During thoroughbred races, jockeys are placed in potentially injurious situations, often with inadequate safety equipment. Jockeys frequently sustain head injuries; therefore, it is important that they wear appropriately certified helmets. Objective: The goals of this study are (1) to perform impact attenuation testing according to ASTM F1163-15 on a sample of equestrian helmets commonly used by jockeys in the United States and (2) to quantify headform acceleration and residual crush after repeat impacts at the same location. Participants and Design: Seven helmet models underwent impact attenuation testing according to ASTM F1163-15. A second sample of each helmet model underwent repeat impacts at the crown location for a total of 4 impacts. Setting : Laboratory. Intervention : Each helmet was impacted against a flat and equestrian hazard anvil. Main Outcome Measures: Headform acceleration was recorded during all impact and computed tomography scans were performed preimpact and after impacts 1 and 4 on the crown to quantify liner thickness. Results: Four helmets had 1 impact that exceeded the limit of 300g. During the repeated crown impacts, acceleration remained below 300g for the first and second impacts for all helmets, while only one helmet remained below 300g for all impacts. Foam liner thickness was reduced between 5% and 39% after the first crown impact and between 33% and 70% after the fourth crown impact. Conclusions: All riders should wear a certified helmet and replace it after sustaining a head impact. Following an impact, expanded polystyrene liners compress, and their ability to attenuate head acceleration during subsequent impacts to the same location is reduced. Replacing an impacted helmet may reduce a rider’s head injury risk.

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

, Bogisch S , Roepstorff L , van Weeren PR , Weishaupt MA . Relationship between the forces acting on the horse’s back and the movements of rider and horse while walking on a treadmill . Equine Vet J . 2010 ; 41 : 285 – 291 . doi:10.2746/042516409X397136 10.2746/042516409X397136 7. Jander CB

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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim, and BumChul Yoon

-up  Stretching 5 5 5 5 Workout  Supine pelvic lift 15 10 5 5  Bridging exercise 15 20 15 10  Side-lying hip abduction – – 10 15 Cooldown  Stretching 5 5 5 5 Abbreviations: SHR, simulated horseback riding; STB, stabilization. SHR Exercise Professionals of physical therapy, equine science, and motor control had

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Kenneth Färnqvist, Stephen Pearson, and Peter Malliaras

tendinous structures in ponies . Equine Vet J . 2007 ; 39 ( 3 ): 226 – 231 . PubMed ID: 17520973 doi:10.2746/042516407X180408 17520973 10.2746/042516407X180408 17. Bosch G , de Mos M , van Binsbergen R , van Schie HT , van de Lest CH , van Weeren PR . The effect of focused extracorporeal

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Laura C. Slane, Stijn Bogaerts, Darryl G. Thelen, and Lennart Scheys

equine model, comparisons between a frequently-injured energy-storing tendon and the less-injured positional tendon may provide insight. These studies have shown that while the energy-storing tendon utilizes greater fascicle sliding during function, 39 there is also an age-related reduction in the

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento, and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

influence of an 8-week rider core fitness program on the equine back at sitting trot . Int J Perform Anal Sport . 2015 ; 15 ( 3 ): 1145 – 1159 . doi:10.1080/24748668.2015.11868858 10.1080/24748668.2015.11868858 46. Mason H . Our sixth sense of balance . British Dressage . 2006 . http

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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton, and Jamie Taylor

to specialist intervention if required. Thirdly, as advocated by the findings within this study whilst also research on equine-assisted therapy with various (clinical) population groups (e.g., adults, Bizub, Joy, & Davidson, 2003 ; children, Schultz, Remick-Barlow, & Robbins, 2007 ) the horse

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Adam J. Petway, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott Epsley, and Philip Anloague

, 32 The AT is an elastic energy storage tendon designed to improve high-speed locomotion and movement efficiency. 33 In this sense, it is analogous to the superficial digital flexor tendon in racehorses, which is also prone to rupture. 25 Research in the equine tendon suggests that movement between