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Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French, and Kevin A. Becker

in individuals with PD, including noncontact boxing ( Combs et al., 2011 ) and Tai Chi ( Hackney & Earhart, 2008 ), which can elicit improvements in balance and posture in this population. Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) are other modalities of alternative exercise that have gained

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Anne M.H. Severyn, Nathan R. Luzum, Kristine L. Vernon, Marieke Van Puymbroeck, and John D. DesJardins

were gentle natured and had prior experience in a therapeutic riding setting. Participants signed an informed consent and lessons were held at the university’s equine center in their outdoor arena (100 × 200 ft). A 30-ft walkway was created with GoPro (San Mateo, CA) cameras (300 Hz) set up 30 ft

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Christopher D. Black and Patrick J. O’Connor

Ginger has known hypoalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of an oral dose of ginger on quadriceps muscle pain, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and recovery of oxygen consumption were examined during and after moderateintensity cycling exercise. Twenty-five college-age participants ingested a 2-g dose of ginger or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design and 30 min later completed 30 min of cycling at 60% of VO2peak. Quadriceps muscle pain, RPE, work rate, heart rate (HR), and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded every 5 min during exercise, and HR and VO2 were recorded for 20 min after exercise. Compared with placebo, ginger had no clinically meaningful or statistically significant effect on perceptions of muscle pain, RPE, work rate, HR, or VO2 during exercise. Recovery of VO2 and HR after the 30-min exercise bout followed a similar time course in the ginger and placebo conditions. The results were consistent with related findings showing that ingesting a large dose of aspirin does not acutely alter quadriceps muscle pain during cycling, and this suggests that prostaglandins do not play a large role in this type of exercise-induced skeletal-muscle pain. Ginger consumption has also been shown to improve VO2 recovery in an equine exercise model, but these results show that this is not the case in humans.

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Tyler J. Noble and Robert F. Chapman

RA , Moran C , Wilson RH , Goodwin WH , Pitsiladis YP . Genetic influence on East African running success . Equine Comp Exerc Physiol . 2004 ; 1 : 273 – 280 . doi:10.1079/ECP200434 10.1079/ECP200434 14. Scott RA , Pitsiladis YP . Genotypes and distance running . Sports Med

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Laura C. Slane, Stijn Bogaerts, Darryl G. Thelen, and Lennart Scheys

equine model, comparisons between a frequently-injured energy-storing tendon and the less-injured positional tendon may provide insight. These studies have shown that while the energy-storing tendon utilizes greater fascicle sliding during function, 39 there is also an age-related reduction in the

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill, and Giles Warrington

horses . Equine Vet J . 2006 ; 38 : 274 – 278 . doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05552.x 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05552.x 16. Bishop PA , Jones E , Woods AK . Recovery from training: a brief review . J Strength Cond Res . 2008 ; 22 ( 3 ): 1015 – 1024 . PubMed ID: 18438210 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b

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Susan Sullivan Glenney, Derrick Paul Brockemer, Andy C. Ng, Michael A. Smolewski, Vladimir M. Smolgovskiy, and Adam S. Lepley

animals OR hamster* OR swine OR equine OR horse OR horses OR swine OR porcine OR pig OR pigs OR goat OR goats OR youth OR “young adults” OR “young adulthood” OR child OR children OR “executive function” OR cognition OR cognitive OR dementia OR supplement OR supplements OR “heart failure” OR statin OR

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Tijs Delabastita, Stijn Bogaerts, and Benedicte Vanwanseele

sliding capacity in older equine tendons ( Godinho, Thorpe, Greenwald, & Screen, 2017 ). Similarly, research also reported that decreased interfascicular sliding capacity is also related to alterations in Achilles tendon stiffness in older adults ( Franz & Thelen, 2016 ). To conclude, these changes in

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Michaela M. Keener, Kimberly I. Tumlin, and Deirdre Dlugonski

disciplines that compromise equestrian activities, categorized into English, Western, short-burst activities (eg, Thoroughbred racing or vaulting), carriage driving, and equine-assisted services. The recreational population is estimated to be 90% female, with the average age of all participants between 35 and