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Andrea T. White, C. Steven Fehlauer, Rita Hanover, Stephen C. Johnson, and Robert E. Dustman

Older individuals arc more likely than younger adults to exhibit symptoms of exercise intolerance at high work rates. The risks of maximal exercise in older adults increase proportionally as the number of health difficulties increase. In this study, the effects of health status, age, and gender on older adults’ ability to attain V̇O2max are examined. Sedentary volunteers (60 women, 45 men), mean age 67 ± 5 years (range 57-78 years), participated in graded maximal exercise tests on a combined arm and leg cycle ergometer. Subjects were classified into three groups based on test termination reason: attainment of V̇O2max (MAX), symptom-limited (SX), or EKG-limited (EKG). Sixty percent of men and 40% of women were classified as MAX, while 48% of women and 27% of men were characterized as SX. Thirteen percent of men and 12% of women had EKG-limited exercise tests. Those in the EKG group reported significantly more diagnoses than subjects in the MAX group (2.7 vs. 1.4. p < .05). The number of medications reported and age of the subjects did not differ across test termination categories.

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Kaitlyn P. Roland, Jennifer M. Jakobi, and Gareth R. Jones

Interest in yoga is growing, especially among older adults. This review critically summarizes the current literature to investigate whether physical fitness and function benefits are engendered through the practice of yoga in older adults. A comprehensive search yielded 507 studies; 10 studies with 544 participants (69.6 ± 6.3 yr, 71% female) were included. Large variability in yoga styles and measurement outcomes make it challenging to interpret results across studies. Studies reported moderate improvements for gait (ES = 0.54, 0.80), balance (ES = 0.25–1.61), upper/lower body flexibility (ES = 0.25, 0.70), lower body strength (ES = 0.51), and weight loss (ES = 0.73, 0.99). Yoga may engender improvements in some components of fitness in older adults. However, more evidence is needed to determine its effectiveness as an alternative exercise to promote fitness in older adults. Further investigation into yoga as an exercise activity for older adults is warranted.

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Herbert W. Marsh

Self-concepts (self-perceptions) of physical fitness and academic achievement were related to 14 field and laboratory indicators of physical fitness and to academic achievement for a large, national representative sample of Australian boys and girls aged 9 to 15 (N = 6,283). Correlations between self-concepts and the corresponding external criteria increased steadily with age in both the physical and academic domains. Consistent with predictions from frame-of-reference models, relations were stronger after controlling for gender and age, suggesting that self-concepts are formed relative to other students of a similar age and gender. Fitness self-concept was most strongly related to some individual measures (e.g., 1.6K run, 50M dash, push-ups, skin fold thickness, VO2max, long jump, and body girth scores) and some components of fitness (e.g., cardiovascular endurance, power, dynamic strength, and body composition) than others. Consistent with multidimensional perspectives of physical fitness, indicators from a variety of fitness domains contributed to fitness self-concepts.

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Georges Jabbour, Melanie Henderson, Angelo Tremblay, and Marie Eve Mathieu


Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) improves aerobic fitness in children, which is usually assessed by maximal oxygen consumption. However, other indices of aerobic fitness have been understudied.


To compare net oxygen (VO2net), net energy consumption (Enet), net mechanical efficiency (MEnet), and lipid oxidation rate in active and inactive children across body weight statuses.


The sample included normal-weight, overweight, and obese children of whom 44 are active (≥30 min of MVPA/d) and 41 are inactive (<30 min of MVPA/d). VO2net, Enet, MEnet and lipid oxidation rate were determined during an incremental maximal cycling test.


Active obese participants had significantly lower values of VO2net and Enet and higher MEnet than inactive obese participants at all load stages. In addition, active obese participants showed a significantly higher lipid oxidation rate compared with inactive obese and active overweight and normal-weight participants. VO2net, Enet, and MEnet were similar across active children, regardless of body weight status.


Thirty minutes or more of MVPA per day is associated with a potentiation of aerobic fitness indicators in obese prepubertal children. Moreover, the indices of aerobic fitness of inactive obese children are significantly different from those of active obese and nonobese ones.

Open access

Paweł Zembura, Agata Korcz, Elżbieta Cieśla, Aleksandra Gołdys, and Hanna Nałȩcz

been established in reference to each indicator based on the amount and quality of the available data. All data sources were published within the last 5 years (since 2013), with the exception of the Physical Fitness indicator. The most informative sources of data were two cross-national surveys

Open access

Karla I. Galaviz, Gabriela Argumedo Garcia, Alejandro Gaytán-González, Inés González-Casanova, Martín Francisco González Villalobos, Alejandra Jáuregui, Edtna Jáuregui Ulloa, Catalina Medina, Yoali Selene Pacheco Miranda, Marcela Pérez Rodríguez, Eugen Resendiz, Ricardo Alejandro Retano Pelayo, María del Pilar Rodríguez Martínez, and Juan Ricardo López y Taylor

that signal commitment to promote physical activity, the degree to which these have been implemented and impacted physical activity is unknown. We were unable to grade the Family and Peers, Active Play and Physical Fitness indicators due to lack of reliable national data. While data to grade most Daily

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Chalchisa Abdeta, Zelalem Teklemariam, Alem Deksisa, and Endashew Abera

. Only the physical fitness indicator received an incomplete grade. This is due to difficulty to get or estimate the fitness data in the country. All other indicators were graded using available data and/or expert estimation. Active play indicator scored the highest grade among the 10 core indicators

Open access

Jung-Woo Oh, JungJun Lim, Sang-Hwa Lee, Yu-sun Jin, Bumjo Oh, Chung Gun Lee, Deok Hwan Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Han Joo Lee, Hyon Park, Hyun Joo Kang, Justin Y. Jeon, Mi-Seong Yu, Sang-Hoon Suh, SeJung Park, So Jung Lee, Soo Jung Park, Wook Song, Yewon Yu, Yoonkyung Song, Youngwon Kim, and Yeon Soo Kim

individual physical fitness indicator were the following: Boys = C, girls = C- for cardiovascular strength; boys = C-, girls = C- for muscular strength; boys/girls = F for flexibility. Therefore, physical fitness was graded an overall “D+” grade. Family and Peers INC Due to insufficient data, this indicator

Open access

Jan Seghers, Stijn De Baere, Maïté Verloigne, and Greet Cardon

grade two out of the 10 indicators. More specific, active play seems to be a neglected PA behaviour in adolescents when developing questionnaires and the physical fitness indicator could not be graded because of a lack of recent data. To investigate secular trends in physical fitness and to analyse the

Open access

Evelin Mäestu, Merike Kull, Kerli Mooses, Jarek Mäestu, Maret Pihu, Andre Koka, Lennart Raudsepp, and Jaak Jürimäe

daily. 1 Physical Fitness INC The Physical Fitness indicator was graded INC due to a lack of data. There are no studies of which general conclusions could be drawn. Family and Peers D Based on a survey among sixth-graders, 61% had friends to do sport with and 64% had friends who invited them to play