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Wade L. Knez and Jonathan M. Peake

Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins.

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson, and Anna Melin

calories, macronutrient composition, and fluid intake using a food analysis database (Dietist XP version 2016; Diet and Nutrition Data AB, Bromma, Sweden). Food and fluid ingestion were recorded as daily intake at preexercise, during exercise, and postexercise time points. Analyses of food records were

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Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil, and Louise M. Burke

exception of main meals (set times) (see Table  2 for details). For data analysis, recipes and special race foods were first entered into a food analysis software (FoodWorks 8 Professional program; Xyris Software, Australia Pty Ltd, Brisbane, QLD, Australia), followed by individual diet record entry and

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Edilson S. Cyrino

related to supplement administration, but they reported no side effects. Prior to the beginning of the experiment, both supplements (WP and maltodextrin) were sent to the Food Analysis Laboratory of the Department of Food Science and Technology of the Center for Agrarian Sciences of the Londrina State

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Wee Lun Foo, Jake D. Harrison, Frank T. Mhizha, Carl Langan-Evans, James P. Morton, Jamie N. Pugh, and Jose L. Areta

analyzed using a food analysis software ( Nutritics , Dublin, Ireland). Energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, alcohol, fiber, fluid, and sodium intake were calculated. Prior to data collection, the remote food photography method was explained in detail during an online video meeting and all participants were

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Bruno Ruiz Brandão da Costa, Rafaela Rocha Roiffé, and Márcia Nogueira da Silva de la Cruz

18) . In S. Nielsen (Ed.,) Food analysis (pp.  315 — 331 ). Cham : Springer . 10.1007/978-3-319-45776-5_18 Chen W. , Huang W. , Chiu C. , Chang W. , Huang C. ( 2014 ). Whey protein improves exercise performance and biochemical profiles in trained mice . Medicine and Science in