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Thomas Heinen

The goal of this study was to investigate the visual spotting hypothesis in 10 experts and 10 apprentices as they perform back aerial somersaults from a standing position with no preparatory jumps (short flight duration condition) and after some preparatory jumps with a flight time of 1s (long flight duration condition). Differences in gaze behavior and kinematics were expected between experts and apprentices and between experimental conditions. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Experts exhibited a smaller landing deviation from the middle of the trampoline bed than apprentices. Experts showed higher fixation ratios during the take-off and flight phase. Experts exhibited no blinks in any of the somersaults in both conditions, whereas apprentices showed significant blink ratios in both experimental conditions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during the back aerial somersault, even when the time of flight is delimited. We conclude that knowledge about gaze–movement relationships may help coaches develop specific training programs in the learning process of the back aerial somersault.

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, and Serge Brand

designed to allow players to receive video feedback of their own gaze behavior. First, the participants watched the vision control of an expert prototype on a screen. Next, they were shown visual data for their own movements, and they were asked to examine the difference between their visual control and

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Aaron Manzanares, Ruperto Menayo, and Francisco Segado

. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25 , 266 – 281 . Dicks , M. , Button , C. , & Davids , K. ( 2010 ). Examination of gaze behaviors under in situ and video simulation task constraints reveals differences in information pickup for perception and action . Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics

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Melissa Hunfalvay and Nicholas Murray

. PubMed doi:10.1123/jsep.29.4.457 10.1123/jsep.29.4.457 Millazzo , N. , Farrow , D. , & Fournier , J.F. ( 2016 ). Effect of implicit perceptual-motor training on decision-making skills and underpinning gaze behavior in combat athletes . Perceptual and Motor Skills, 123 ( 1 ), 300 – 323 . doi:10

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Courtney M. Butowicz, Julian C. Acasio, and Brad D. Hendershot

-Marie DM . Gaze behaviors and decision making accuracy of higher-and lower-level ice hockey referees . Psychol Sport Exerc . 2013 ; 14 ( 1 ): 66 – 71 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.08.002 10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.08.002 26. Macmillan NA , Creelman CD . Detection Theory: A User’s Guide . New

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Wojciech Jedziniak, Piotr Lesiakowski, and Teresa Zwierko

.T. , Sachse , P. , & Furtner , M.R. ( 2012 ). Eyes as windows to the soul: Gazing behavior is related to personality . Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 147 – 156 . doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.12.010 10.1016/j.jrp.2011.12.010 Rodrigues , S

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Faezeh Mohammadi Sanjani, Abbas Bahram, Moslem Bahmani, Mina Arvin, and John van der Kamp

retention tests would help to further understand the combined (and perhaps circular) roles of texting and postural stability in driving performance. Measuring factors such as head stability or gaze behavior may provide more plausible evidence regarding the role of postural control in driving and also, the

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Christopher J. Palmer and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

: 17314243 doi:10.1152/jn.01142.2006 10.1152/jn.01142.2006 Janelle , C.M. , Hillman , C.H. , Apparies , R.J. , Murray , N.P. , Meili , L. , Fallon , E.A. , … Hatfield , B.D. ( 2000 ). Expertise differences in cortical activation and gaze behavior during rifle shooting . Journal of Sport