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Kyle L. Timmerman, Kevin D. Ballard, Michael A. Deal, Lisa C. Tagariello, Jenna M. Karrow, Gabrielle A. Volk, Adam Meisler, Ian D. Connors, and Rachael E. Mott

dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase, buffer ROS accumulation and are critical to limiting cellular oxidative damage. 10 Aging is linked to both increased ROS production 11 – 13 and diminished expression and activity of endogenous antioxidants. 14 , 15 This finding has generated

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Rameswar Pal, Som Nath Singh, Kaushik Halder, Omveer Singh Tomer, Awadh Bihari Mishra, and Mantu Saha

Background:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of yogic practice on resting metabolism and redox status.

Methods:

The study was conducted on 64 physically trained male volunteers selected randomly at the Air Force Academy. The yoga group (n = 34) practiced yogasana, pranayama, and meditation for 3 months (February–May 2011) and the control group (n = 30) performed physical training. Antioxidant variables in blood samples along with physiological parameters were estimated before and after 3 months.

Results:

No significant difference was noted between baseline data of the control group and yoga group. Reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E; the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione; and total antioxidant status were increased significantly following yogic practice. Activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase were significantly increased, whereas activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly decreased following yogic practice. Oxidized glutathione decreased significantly following yogic practice. A nonsignificant decrease of hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde, and blood sugar was noted in the yoga group. Carbon dioxide elimination and peripheral oxygen saturation increased significantly following yogic practice. No significant changes were observed in the control group following 3 months of physical training.

Conclusions:

Regular yogic practice can improve resting metabolism and redox status of the practitioner.

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Mina Rasouli Mojez, Abbas Ali Gaeini, Siroos Choobineh, and Mohsen Sheykhlouvand

both cytosol and mitochondrial matrices including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Some small molecular weight and nonenzymatic antioxidants are also involved in the protection of the intracellular components against ROS along with the mentioned antioxidant

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Randhall B. Carteri, André Luis Lopes, Cinthia M. Schöler, Cleiton Silva Correa, Rodrigo C. Macedo, Júlia Silveira Gross, Renata Lopes Kruger, Paulo I. Homem de Bittencourt Jr, and Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira

Background:

Since exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in different tissues, the objective of this study is to evaluate, compare and correlate the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in circulatory markers of oxidative stress and acylated ghrelin (AG) in postmenopausal women.

Methods:

Ten postmenopausal women completed different protocols: a control session (CON), an aerobic exercise session (AERO); and a single-set (SSR) or 3-set (MSR) resistance exercise protocol.

Results:

After exercise, both MSR (P = .06) and AERO (P = .02) sessions showed significant increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline levels. CON and SSR sessions showed no differences after exercise. No differences were found between sessions at any time for total glutathione, glutathione dissulfide or AG concentrations.

Conclusions:

Exercise significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline values. As pro oxidant stimuli is necessary to promote chronic adaptations to the antioxidant defenses induced by exercise, our findings are important to consider when evaluating exercise programs prescription variables aiming quality of life in this population.

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Mohamed A. Bouzid, Omar Hammouda, Régis Matran, Sophie Robin, and Claudine Fabre

This comparative study examined the effects of regular low intensity aerobic exercise on oxidative stress markers in older adults. The study was carried out on 15 sedentary subjects (age: 65.1 ± 3.5 years) versus 18 subjects performing fitness exercises (age: 65.8 ± 3.3 years). Before and after an incremental exercise test, oxidative stress markers were assessed. Superoxide dismutase was higher at rest and at the recovery for the physically active subjects compared with sedentary subjects (p < .05). At recovery, glutathione peroxidase and α -Tocopherol increased significantly above the resting values only in the active group (p < .05). Malondialdehyde had increased in both groups (p < .01), associated with a higher level in the sedentary group (p < .05) at the recovery. These data suggest that low intensity aerobic exercise may be useful to prevent the decline of antioxidants linked with aging.

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J.A. Goon, A.H. Noor Aini, M. Musalmah, M.Y. Yasmin Anum, W.M. Wan Nazaimoon, and W.Z. Wan Ngah

Background:

The biochemical mechanisms involving oxidative stress to explain the relationship between exercise and healthy aging are still unclear.

Methods:

Tai Chi participants and matched sedentary volunteers age 45 and above were enrolled. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities; levels of DNA damage using the comet assay; and malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced glycation end products (AGE) were determined at 0, 6, and 12 months.

Results:

Tai Chi subjects had decreased normal and increased mildly damaged DNA with elevated GPx activity after 6 months (n = 25). Plasma MDA and AGE concentrations decreased significantly after 12 months (n = 15) accompanied by increased SOD activity. This may be attributed to the hormesis effect, whereby mild induction of oxidative stress at the first 6 months of exercise resulted in stimulation of antioxidant defenses. These parameters were unchanged in the sedentary subjects in the first 6 months (n = 27) except for elevated SOD activity. After 12 months, the sedentary subjects (n = 17) had decreased normal DNA and increased severely damaged DNA with unaltered MDA and AGE levels while SOD and GPx activities were significantly elevated.

Conclusion:

Regular Tai Chi exercise stimulated endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced oxidative damage markers.

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner, and Moisés E. Bauer

is divided into nonenzymatic defenses (e.g., ascorbic acid) and enzymatic defenses, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), that are present within cells but also in extracellular fluids, such as plasma ( Gutteridge & Halliwell, 2000 ; Halliwell, 1996 ). SOD has an

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Tom Clifford

protein fractional synthetic rate; AVA = avenanthramide; NRB = neutrophil respiratory burst; IL-1β = interleukin-1beta; GPX = glutathione peroxidase; CRP = C-reactive protein; SOD = superoxide dismutase; GSH = reduced glutathione; GSSG = glutathione disulfide; TAC = total antioxidant capacity; NF

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes, and Jerson Laks

is able to increase the antioxidant activity by upregulation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to an anti-inflammatory status. 52 , 53 In relation to CRP, it is important to highlight that exercise decreases levels of triglyceride and cholesterol followed by CRP

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Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin, and Jennifer Weggen

/Zn superoxide dismutase in human aortic endothelial cells . Circ Res . 1996 ; 79 ( 1 ): 32 – 37 . PubMed ID: 8925565 doi:10.1161/01.RES.79.1.32 8925565 10.1161/01.RES.79.1.32 44. Takeshita S , Inoue N , Ueyama T , Kawashima S , Yokoyama M . Shear stress enhances glutathione peroxidase