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Sada Reed and Kathleen A. Hansen

Using gatekeeping theory as a conceptual framework, this study examines social media’s influence on American sports journalists’ perception of gatekeeping, particularly sports journalists who cover elite sports. Seventy-seven print sports journalists covering professional sports were asked if their definition of gatekeeper has changed since they began using social media for news-gathering purposes. Thirty-six participants did not think their definition of gatekeeper had changed. The 26 respondents who did think it had changed were asked to explain how. Responses were coded into 1 of the 5 categories in Shoemaker and Reese’s Hierarchy of Influences model—individual, media routines, organization, extramedia, and ideological. Results suggest that for practitioners who do believe there has been a change, they see social media as changing their day-in, day-out job routines, as opposed to extramedia influences.

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Patrick C. Gentile, Nicholas R. Buzzelli, Sean R. Sadri, and Nathan A. Towery

. Literature Review Hierarchy of Influences Model A number of factors can influence the content that journalists produce. The hierarchy of influences model ( Shoemaker & Reese, 1996 ) posits that there are five different levels of analyses influencing media content, ranging from micro- to macro-level influence

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Brian Wilson and Nicolien VanLuijk

journalism (below), we introduce Shoemaker and Reese’s ( 1996 ) hierarchy of influences model—as a more specific framework for considering both the particular role of the journalist in media production, as well as the other levels in the production chain that shape media contents. We now turn to Boykoff

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Adam Vanzella-Yang and Tobias Finger

. Players must engage in “cooperative, goal-oriented encounters” ( Ridgeway, 2001 , p. 850) in order to emerge victorious. Thus, it is expected that a hierarchy of influence, power, and prestige will be established among participants, giving rise to status inequality among team members. Given that gender is

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith, and Louis Passfield

development of perfectionism in sport. Specifically, theory needs to account for a potential hierarchy of influencers. In this regard, it needs to show that coaches are not only important but also could actually be more important than parents in sport. This also has broader theoretical implications. It