moderates the incidence of ironic errors during high-anxiety conditions. Individuals scoring relatively high in neuroticism made more ironic errors than those who were relatively low in neuroticism during football penalty shooting and dart throwing tasks. Finally, Gray, Orn, and Woodman ( 2017 ) revealed
Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke, and Tim Woodman
Jeremy R. Dugdale and Robert C. Eklund
Two studies grounded in ironic-cognitive-processing theory were conducted to determine (a) whether ironic errors may be associated with efforts to exert mental control that typically occur in sport settings and (b) whether these potential ironic effects could be negated through the use of a task-relevant cue word to refocus one’s thoughts during suppression. Participants were asked to watch a videotape of a series of clips of Australian Rules Football players, coaches, and umpires. Study 1 revealed that participants were more aware of umpires when instructed not to pay attention to them. Contrary to expectations, however, ironic effects were not significantly magnified by the combination of high cognitive load and the instruction not to pay attention to the umpires. Results from Study 2 indicated that potential ironic effects could be negated when individuals were given a task-relevant cue word to focus on when suppressing unwanted or negative thoughts. Overall, support for ironic processing theory was found in Studies 1 and 2 in this investigation.
Rob Gray, Anders Orn, and Tim Woodman
in experts ( Wilson, Vine, & Wood, 2009 ). However, it is important to note that none of these studies included clearly defined ironic errors. Turning to ironic processes theory, Woodman, Barlow, and Gorgulu ( 2015 ) recently provided evidence of performance breakdowns under pressure consistent with
Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson, and Paul Davis
.S. ( 2010 ). Activation/arousal control . In S.J. Hanrahan & M.B. Andersen (Eds.), Routledge handbook of applied sport psychology (pp. 471 – 480 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Woodman , T. , & Davis , P.A. ( 2008 ). The role of repression in the incidence of ironic errors . The Sport