This commentary emphasizes three points of discussion. (a) The terminology: The terms multifunctional, synergisic, antagonistic muscles, and synergistic and antagonistic coactivations are discussed and the conclusion is drawn that they could not be used without mentioning the particular joint motion. (b) The importance of the external joint moments for activation of the muscles is confirmed on the basis of logical and mechanical considerations. Not all experimental results, however, could be explained by this means. (c) The optimization criterion: Prilutsky's conclusion concerning the predicted muscle force proportionality to the muscle moment arm and PCSA is confirmed using a simple analytical solution of the optimization problem. It is shown, however, that the proportionality to the PCSA is a consequence of the chosen optimization criterion.
Rositsa T. Raikova
Nadège Tebbache and Alain Hamaoui
.12.022 Doorenbosch , C.A. , Harlaar , J. , Roebroeck , M.E. , & Lankhorst , G.J. ( 1994 ). Two strategies of transferring from sit-to-stand; the activation of monoarticular and biarticular muscles . Journal of Biomechanics, 27 ( 11 ), 1299 – 1307 . PubMed ID: 7798280 doi:10.1016/0021-9290(94)90039-6 10