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Robert Weinberg, Allen Jackson, and Kathleen Kolodny

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the relationship between exercise, massage, and positive mood enhancement. Subjects were students in physical education classes including swimming, jogging, tennis, and racquetball, with each separate activity comprising a level of the primary independent treatment variable. In addition, subjects from other classes made up a control rest condition and a massage treatment condition resulting in a one-way design. All subjects completed the profile of mood states, state anxiety, and an activation checklist just prior to and immediately after 30 minutes of activity. Instructors in the classes agreed not to schedule any competitions between students but rather just let them play or exercise. Subjects in the control rest condition read or rested for 30 minutes, while in the massage treatment condition a certified massage therapist gave a 30-min Swedish massage. Results indicated that the running and massage conditions consistently produced positive mood enhancement with significant decreases in tension, confusion, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and anger while maintaining high levels of vigor, which is representative of positive mental health. None of the other experimental activity conditions significantly influenced the dependent variables. Practical applications of the use of massage both before and after competition and exercise are discussed, and future directions for research are offered.

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John B. Bartholomew

This experiment was designed to examine the effects of resistance exercise on a manipulated preexercise mood. Participants were 40 undergraduate males who were randomly assigned to either resistance exercise or no-exercise, placebo activity. Prior to each session, participants were exposed to 1 of 3 mood inductions: positive, negative, or neutral, each of which was induced through the use of guided imagery. Resistance exercisers in the control condition reported increased anxiety and anger within 5 nun postexercise. This quickly dissipated, with anxiety falling below baseline values within 30 min postexercise. Neither condition was able to maintain the manipulated positive mood. Likewise, both conditions reduced the manipulated negative mood. However, the mood-enhancing effect of the placebo activity plateaued within 15 min. while the anxiolytic effect of exercise continued throughout recovery.

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Robert A. Carels, Carissa Coit, Kathleen Young, and Bonnie Berger

Whereas exercise-induced mood enhancement has been well documented, the relationship between mood and exercise participation is less well understood. Mood states influence evaluative judgments that could plausibly influence a decision to exercise. Further, most exercise-mood research is limited to normal weight adults in response to a single exercise session. The current investigation examines the influence of (a) morning mood on exercise, (b) exercise intensity/duration on mood enhancement, and (c) daily change in mood on exercise days compared with nonexercise days in obese behavioral weight loss program (BWLP) participants. Participants (N = 36) recorded morning, evening, and pre- and postexercise mood, as well as the type, duration, and intensity of exercise. Within-person analyses indicated that (a) morning mood was associated with an increased likelihood of exercising, (b) mood ratings were higher following exercise of greater intensity and duration, and (c) daily mood enhancement was associated with greater exercise initiation and greater exercise intensity. Measuring mood before and after exercise may yield important clinical information that can be used to promote physical activity in obese adults.

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Robert A. Carels, Bonnie Berger, and Lynn Darby

Mood states influence evaluative judgments that can affect the decision to exercise or to continue to exercise. This study examined how mood associated with graded exercise testing (GXT) in sedentary, obese, postmenopausal women (N = 25) was associated with physical activity and predicted VO2max during and after a behavioral weight-loss program (BWLP). Measures of physical activity included planned exercise, calories from physical activity, leisure-time physical activity, and predicted VO2max. Mood before and after pre-BWLP GXT was assessed using the Profile of Mood States. Mood before and after the GXT was more strongly associated with planned exercise than other forms of physical activity, and this effect became stronger over time. Mood enhancement in response to exercise was not related to physical activity. Mood before and after exercise might yield important clinical information that can be used to promote physical activity in sedentary adults.

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Daniel Birrer

consciously in a mood-repair mode in which he would deliberately choose activities, music, and readings with a mood-enhancing impact. In addition, he was encouraged to explore activities outside the sport that he perceives as fun and fulfilling. In accordance with the ECSS and ACSM’s ( Meeusen et al., 2013

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Kyle J. Miller, Rodolfo I. Martínez-Lemos, Antón Giráldez, and Carlos Ayán

physical exercise, 52 and this mood-enhancing effect may motivate people to adhere to a healthier lifestyle. The effects of NW in overweight or obese people in these aspects remain unstudied. The present investigation has several key strengths. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first review that has

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Erianne A. Weight, Molly Harry, and Heather Erwin

students, as it appears that physical activity extends beyond health and into learning. In addition, the finding of physical activity as a helpful mood enhancer suggests students may be more motivated to learn when given the opportunity to move. 54 , 58 There were a number of limitations to our study

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Maggie Evans, Kelly J. Rohan, Jonah Meyerhoff, Richard J. Norton, and Jeremy S. Sibold

with lower depression symptoms, and higher depression symptoms are associated with lower physical activity over time ( Pinto Pereira et al., 2014 ). Experimental studies support a causal relationship between physical activity and mental health. The mood-enhancing properties of exercise are supported by

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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

short-term effects accrued and developed into long-term effects. The findings align with studies reporting repetitive engagement in mood-enhancing strategies/activities (by habit or through training) leads to long-term SWB effects ( Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006 ; Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 ). One

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-100. Conclusions: Findings suggest that replacements of SB with PA may lead to mood enhancements. Given the high prevalence of mental disorders, more studies are warranted to deepen the understanding of momentary compositional mechanisms between PB and mood. Applying CoDA to intensive longitudinal data can serve