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A Test of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory with Male Wheelchair Basketball Players

Stéphane Perreault and Dan Q. Marisi

The purpose of the present field study was to examine the predictions of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens et al., 1990) with elite male wheelchair basketball players. Thirty-seven elite male wheelchair basketball players completed the CSAI-II prior to each of three tournament games. Results were analyzed using the intraindividual procedures recommended by Sonstroem and Bernado (1982), and separate polynomial trend analyses were used to test the predictions of MAT. Results did not provide statistical support for MAT in that there were no reliable trends between cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, state self-confidence, and basketball performance. Avenues for future research are suggested.

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The Relationship Among Personality, Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, Physiological Arousal, and Performance in Male Athletes

Kamuran Yerlikaya Balyan, Serdar Tok, Arkun Tatar, Erdal Binboga, and Melih Balyan

The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athlete’s neurotic personality may influence his cognitive and physiological responses in a competition.

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Applications of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning Model for the Multimodal Treatment of Precompetitive Anxiety

James J. Annesi

Effects of a precompetitive anxiety regulation system, based upon tenets of the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model, multidimensional anxiety theory, and the specific-effects hypothesis, were tested. In Phase I, case studies (3 elite adolescent tennis players) were used to analyze the IZOF model within a multidimensional state anxiety framework. In Phase II, the effectiveness of a precompetitive anxiety regulation system, based upon IZOF and the specific-effects hypothesis, was tested for enhancing match performance. Essential elements of IZOF theory were supported. In Phase II, inzone/out-of-zone A-state assessment was used to guide athletes’ treatment selections. After training athletes in prematch psychological skills designed to regulate specific cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, and state selfconfidence dimensions, posttreatment performances yielded higher values (ps < .05) than pretreatment. The need to replicate findings through different sample types, sports, and expertise levels was emphasized. Concerns with intrusion into athletes’ precompetitive routines were discussed.

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The Effect of Role Ambiguity on Competitive State Anxiety

Mark R. Beauchamp, Steven R. Bray, Mark A. Eys, and Albert V. Carron

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety (A-state). Consistent with multidimensional anxiety theory (Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990), it was hypothesized that role ambiguity would be positively related to cognitive but not to somatic A-state. Based on the conceptual model presented by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002), role ambiguity in sport was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (i.e., scope of responsibilities, role behaviors, role evaluation, and role consequences) potentially manifested in each of two contexts, offense and defense. Consistent with hypotheses, ambiguity in terms of the scope of offensive role responsibilities predicted cognitive A-state (R 2 = .19). However, contrary to hypotheses, offensive role-consequences ambiguity also predicted somatic A-state (R 2 = .09). Results highlight the importance of using a multidimensional approach to investigate role ambiguity in sport and are discussed in terms of both theory advancement and possible interventions.

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A Theoretical Framework for Structuring the Content of Competitive Worry in Ice Hockey

John G.H. Dunn

Many competitive sport anxiety researchers have examined the degree to which athletes worry before or during competition. Little attention has been paid, however, to establishing a conceptual framework for structuring the content of competitive worry. The main purpose of this study was to examine the latent dimensionality of competitive worry in intercollegiate ice hockey (N= 178) using a conceptual framework based on two multidimensional anxiety theories developed by Endler (1983) and Hackfort (1986). Multidimensional scaling and factor-analytic results revealed that competitive worry in ice hockey can be structured around a combination of four potential content domains relating to athletes’ fear of failure, negative social evaluation, injury or physical danger, and the unknown. These constructs were congruent with the situational anxiety dimensions proposed by Endler and Hackfort. Discussion focuses on the characteristic features of the four worry domains and the extent to which athletes were predisposed to experiencing each type of worry.

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A Practical Application of the Anxiety–Athletic Performance Relationship: The Zone of Optimal Functioning Hypothesis

Vikki Krane

Hanin (1980) proposed the zone of optimal functioning hypothesis (ZOF), suggesting that each athlete has a specific band width, or zone, of anxiety in which best performances will most likely be observed. The present study combined the ZOF hypothesis with the multidimensional anxiety theory (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990). Unique cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety zones were identified, and it was hypothesized that athletes whose anxiety levels fell within these zones would be more successful than athletes whose anxiety levels were outside these zones. Results of separate cognitive and somatic anxiety ANOVAs indicated that poorest performances were observed when athletes’ cognitive and somatic anxiety were above their zones; performances when anxiety was within or below cognitive and somatic anxiety zones did not differ.

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Three-Dimensional State Anxiety Recall: Implications for Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning Research and Application

James J. Annesi

The accuracy of athletes in recalling precompetition anxiety was tested using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Young and adolescent female gymnastics and field hockey athletes (N = 34) were tested one hour precompetition and again 48 hours postcompetition (with instructions to recall precompetition feelings). Correlations were significantly different (weaker) than when the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used within the same time frame (Harger & Raglin, 1994). After establishing individual “zones” around actual state anxiety values, based on individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) theory (Hanin, 1980, 1986, 1989), it was determined that the weaker correlations in the present study translated into enough incorrect in-zone/out-of-zone assessments that two-day recall, using the CSAI-2, may not be useful for IZOF research and practice. The necessity to further this research with other samples and sports was emphasized. The possibility of using alternate methods was discussed in an effort to provide accurate, minimally intrusive state anxiety measurement which may, ultimately, guide practitioners in effective intervention design through the use of IZOF, multidimensional anxiety theory, and the specific-effects (matching) hypothesis.