This study examined the presence and experience of muscle dysmorphia among current and former steroid-using recreational bodybuilders. The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory was given to 60 male participants, with 9 of these being interviewed to examine the predisposing factors, characteristics, and negative consequences of muscle dysmorphia comprising Lantz, Rhea, and Mayhew’s (2001) conceptual model. Quantitative results from the MDI data showed no significant differences between current and former steroid users in their experiences of muscle dysmorphia. In contrast, interviews suggested that former users appeared to be more susceptible to some of the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia, including physique protection and body distortion/dissatisfaction, which suggests perhaps a limitation in the amount of information that can be extracted from a questionnaire. These preliminary findings also raise concerns about the lack of a diagnostic tool available for the condition and are discussed in relation to Lantz et al.’s (2001) conceptual model.
Rebecca Davies, Dave Smith, and Kevan Collier
Mark T. Suffolk
The sport of competitive bodybuilding is strongly associated with muscle dysmorphia, a body-image-related psychological disorder. This theoretical article draws on existing concepts, namely stereotyping, prejudice, and positive deviance in sport, to explicate the notion that competitive bodybuilding and body-image disturbance may be mistakenly conflated. The perspective offered here goes beyond the countercultural physique to argue that a negative social perception of competitive bodybuilders obscures the pragmatic necessity to develop a hypermesomorphic physique. Competitive bodybuilders (CBs) and athletes in mainstream competitive sport exhibit congruent psychobehavioral tendencies. In a competitive-sport context, behavior among CBs perceived as pathological may primarily represent a response to the ideological sporting ethic of “win at all costs,” not extreme body-image disturbance. Analyzing the psychobehavioral characteristics of CBs within a sporting rather than a pathological framework, allows for a contextual assessment of behaviors to then determine the clinical significance relative to the research population under investigation.
Jennifer E. Carter and Nancy A. Rudd
Sports have received widespread attention for the risk of disordered eating, but prevalence rates among athletes have varied from one to 62 percent across studies (Beals, 2004). One explanation for this discrepancy has been the tendency for previous studies to select “at-risk” sports for examination. The current study extends prior inquiry by expanding the sample to the entire student-athlete group at Ohio State University. Approximately 800 varsity student-athletes at this large Division I university completed the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (Q-EDD; Mintz, O’Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) in 2001 and 2002, allowing gender and type of sport comparisons. The purposes of the study were to identify at-risk athletes as part of a screening process designed for eating disorder prevention, and to continue to refine the assessment of disordered eating in athletes. Not surprisingly, results showed that subclinical eating problems were more prevalent than clinical eating disorders in athletes, with 19 percent of female athletes and 12 percent of male athletes reporting eating disorder symptoms in year one, and 17 percent of female athletes and nine percent of male athletes in year two. Because the Q-EDD does not fully capture male body image problems, in 2002 questions were added to the Q-EDD that assessed preoccupation with muscularity, and preliminary Endings showed that one percent of male athletes fit a diagnosis of Muscle Dysmorphia. For both years, athletes from lean sports reported significantly more eating disorder symptoms than did athletes from nonlean sports. Specific policies employed by this university and prevention strategies will be discussed.
Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch, and Manuel Waldorf
muscularity (DM) is the hallmark feature of a phenomenon that has gained attention in recent years: muscle dysmorphia, which is a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Muscle dysmorphia is characterized by the
Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner
’Arripe-Longueville, Lentillon-Kaestner, & Mériaux-Scoffier 2018 ; Davis & Scott-Robertson, 2000 ). Numerous studies on male bodybuilders have focused on muscle dysmorphia (e.g., Fabris et al., 2018 ; Palazón-Bru et al., 2018 ). This pathology is present when individuals perceive themselves as small and weak (e.g., Pope
Zachary A. Soulliard, Hannah F. Fitterman-Harris, Joanne E. Perry, Lindsey M. Poe, and Michael J. Ross
of and directly following engagement in sport. In terms of negative aspects of body image, a study conducted among a small sample of men participating in weight training found that muscle dysmorphia symptoms differed based on situation, specifically with more symptoms on rest days compared to
Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies, and Kevin Enright
, 20 ( 7 ), 689 – 695 . doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.009 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.009 Pope , H.G. , Gruber , A.J. , Choi , P. , Olivardia , R. , & Phillips , K.A. ( 1997 ). Muscle dysmorphia: An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder . Psychosomatics, 38 ( 6 ), 548 – 557 . PubMed ID
Rachael E. Flatt and Craig Barr Taylor
muscle leanness: A complex case with features of muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder not otherwise specified . Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 11 ( 4 ), 117 – 118 . PubMed ID: 17272941 doi:10.1007/BF03327575 10.1007/BF03327575 Carrard , I. , Crépin , C
Justine Chatterton, Trent A. Petrie, Keke L. Schuler, and Camilo Ruggero
development of muscle dysmorphia . Eating Disorders, 15 , 63 – 80 . PubMed doi:10.1080/10640260601044535 10.1080/10640260601044535 Haynos , A. , & Fruzzetti , A. ( 2011 ). Anorexia nervosa as a disorder of emotion dysregulation: Evidence and treatment implications . Clinical Psychology: Science and