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Muscle Dysmorphia Among Current and Former Steroid Users

Rebecca Davies, Dave Smith, and Kevan Collier

This study examined the presence and experience of muscle dysmorphia among current and former steroid-using recreational bodybuilders. The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory was given to 60 male participants, with 9 of these being interviewed to examine the predisposing factors, characteristics, and negative consequences of muscle dysmorphia comprising Lantz, Rhea, and Mayhew’s (2001) conceptual model. Quantitative results from the MDI data showed no significant differences between current and former steroid users in their experiences of muscle dysmorphia. In contrast, interviews suggested that former users appeared to be more susceptible to some of the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia, including physique protection and body distortion/dissatisfaction, which suggests perhaps a limitation in the amount of information that can be extracted from a questionnaire. These preliminary findings also raise concerns about the lack of a diagnostic tool available for the condition and are discussed in relation to Lantz et al.’s (2001) conceptual model.

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Trait Perfectionism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation, and Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Exercisers: A Structural Equation Modeling Strategy

Michael C. Grugan and Kieran J. Wright

Lay Summary We know that high levels of trait perfectionism are a potential risk factor for muscle dysmorphia (MD) in male exercisers. This study shows that higher levels of perfectionistic self-presentation (a dynamic interpersonal style characterized by a drive to appear perfect or conceal

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Early Maladaptive Schemas, Cognitive Fusion, and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Attitudes: The Mediating Role of Muscle Dysmorphia in Iran

Mehdi Ebrahimi, Zahra Zamani, and Ebrahim Bagheri

variable of muscle dysmorphia (MD). People with MD have a constant mental preoccupation with having a muscular body and, as a result, do excessive bodybuilding exercises. MD, defined as obsessive–compulsive disorder and related disorders, is a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder, in which the defect in

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Competitive Bodybuilding: Positive Deviance, Body Image Pathology, or Modern Day Competitive Sport?

Mark T. Suffolk

The sport of competitive bodybuilding is strongly associated with muscle dysmorphia, a body-image-related psychological disorder. This theoretical article draws on existing concepts, namely stereotyping, prejudice, and positive deviance in sport, to explicate the notion that competitive bodybuilding and body-image disturbance may be mistakenly conflated. The perspective offered here goes beyond the countercultural physique to argue that a negative social perception of competitive bodybuilders obscures the pragmatic necessity to develop a hypermesomorphic physique. Competitive bodybuilders (CBs) and athletes in mainstream competitive sport exhibit congruent psychobehavioral tendencies. In a competitive-sport context, behavior among CBs perceived as pathological may primarily represent a response to the ideological sporting ethic of “win at all costs,” not extreme body-image disturbance. Analyzing the psychobehavioral characteristics of CBs within a sporting rather than a pathological framework, allows for a contextual assessment of behaviors to then determine the clinical significance relative to the research population under investigation.

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A Narrative Review on Female Physique Athletes: The Physiological and Psychological Implications of Weight Management Practices

Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies, and Kevin Enright

, 20 ( 7 ), 689 – 695 . doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.009 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.009 Pope , H.G. , Gruber , A.J. , Choi , P. , Olivardia , R. , & Phillips , K.A. ( 1997 ). Muscle dysmorphia: An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder . Psychosomatics, 38 ( 6 ), 548 – 557 . PubMed ID

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Bulimic Symptomatology Among Male Collegiate Athletes: A Test of an Etiological Model

Justine Chatterton, Trent A. Petrie, Keke L. Schuler, and Camilo Ruggero

development of muscle dysmorphia . Eating Disorders, 15 , 63 – 80 . PubMed doi:10.1080/10640260601044535 10.1080/10640260601044535 Haynos , A. , & Fruzzetti , A. ( 2011 ). Anorexia nervosa as a disorder of emotion dysregulation: Evidence and treatment implications . Clinical Psychology: Science and

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North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity

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How Healthy is a Desire to be Fit and Strong? Drives for Thinness, Leanness, and Muscularity in Women in Weight Training

Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch, and Manuel Waldorf

muscularity (DM) is the hallmark feature of a phenomenon that has gained attention in recent years: muscle dysmorphia, which is a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Muscle dysmorphia is characterized by the

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Eating Behaviors Among Male Bodybuilders and Runners: Application of the Trans-Contextual Model of Motivation

Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner

’Arripe-Longueville, Lentillon-Kaestner, & Mériaux-Scoffier 2018 ; Davis & Scott-Robertson, 2000 ). Numerous studies on male bodybuilders have focused on muscle dysmorphia (e.g.,  Fabris et al., 2018 ; Palazón-Bru et al., 2018 ). This pathology is present when individuals perceive themselves as small and weak (e.g.,  Pope

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Predictive Factors for Compulsive Exercise in Adolescent Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

Martine Fortier, Christopher Rodrigue, Camille Clermont, Anne-Sophie Gagné, Audrey Brassard, Daniel Lalande, and Jacinthe Dion

muscle mass. Indeed, this notion is supported by the growing literature on muscle dysmorphia, characterized by a preoccupation over one’s muscularity, which is more prevalent in adult and adolescent males ( Ganson et al., 2023 ; Mitchison et al., 2022 ) and is frequently linked to eating disorder