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Rebecca Davies, Dave Smith, and Kevan Collier

This study examined the presence and experience of muscle dysmorphia among current and former steroid-using recreational bodybuilders. The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory was given to 60 male participants, with 9 of these being interviewed to examine the predisposing factors, characteristics, and negative consequences of muscle dysmorphia comprising Lantz, Rhea, and Mayhew’s (2001) conceptual model. Quantitative results from the MDI data showed no significant differences between current and former steroid users in their experiences of muscle dysmorphia. In contrast, interviews suggested that former users appeared to be more susceptible to some of the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia, including physique protection and body distortion/dissatisfaction, which suggests perhaps a limitation in the amount of information that can be extracted from a questionnaire. These preliminary findings also raise concerns about the lack of a diagnostic tool available for the condition and are discussed in relation to Lantz et al.’s (2001) conceptual model.

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Mark T. Suffolk

The sport of competitive bodybuilding is strongly associated with muscle dysmorphia, a body-image-related psychological disorder. This theoretical article draws on existing concepts, namely stereotyping, prejudice, and positive deviance in sport, to explicate the notion that competitive bodybuilding and body-image disturbance may be mistakenly conflated. The perspective offered here goes beyond the countercultural physique to argue that a negative social perception of competitive bodybuilders obscures the pragmatic necessity to develop a hypermesomorphic physique. Competitive bodybuilders (CBs) and athletes in mainstream competitive sport exhibit congruent psychobehavioral tendencies. In a competitive-sport context, behavior among CBs perceived as pathological may primarily represent a response to the ideological sporting ethic of “win at all costs,” not extreme body-image disturbance. Analyzing the psychobehavioral characteristics of CBs within a sporting rather than a pathological framework, allows for a contextual assessment of behaviors to then determine the clinical significance relative to the research population under investigation.

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies, and Kevin Enright

, 20 ( 7 ), 689 – 695 . doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.009 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.009 Pope , H.G. , Gruber , A.J. , Choi , P. , Olivardia , R. , & Phillips , K.A. ( 1997 ). Muscle dysmorphia: An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder . Psychosomatics, 38 ( 6 ), 548 – 557 . PubMed ID

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Justine Chatterton, Trent A. Petrie, Keke L. Schuler, and Camilo Ruggero

development of muscle dysmorphia . Eating Disorders, 15 , 63 – 80 . PubMed doi:10.1080/10640260601044535 10.1080/10640260601044535 Haynos , A. , & Fruzzetti , A. ( 2011 ). Anorexia nervosa as a disorder of emotion dysregulation: Evidence and treatment implications . Clinical Psychology: Science and

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch, and Manuel Waldorf

muscularity (DM) is the hallmark feature of a phenomenon that has gained attention in recent years: muscle dysmorphia, which is a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). Muscle dysmorphia is characterized by the

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Lisa Chaba, Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, and Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner

’Arripe-Longueville, Lentillon-Kaestner, & Mériaux-Scoffier 2018 ; Davis & Scott-Robertson, 2000 ). Numerous studies on male bodybuilders have focused on muscle dysmorphia (e.g.,  Fabris et al., 2018 ; Palazón-Bru et al., 2018 ). This pathology is present when individuals perceive themselves as small and weak (e.g.,  Pope

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Rachael E. Flatt and Craig Barr Taylor

muscle leanness: A complex case with features of muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder not otherwise specified . Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 11 ( 4 ), 117 – 118 . PubMed ID: 17272941 doi:10.1007/BF03327575 10.1007/BF03327575 Carrard , I. , Crépin , C