Concussions resulting from sports and recreational activities are a significant concern in the pediatric population. The number of children and adolescents sustaining sport-related concussions is increasing and, as a result, legislation has been passed in all 50 states to ensure appropriate recognition and referral of pediatric athletes following concussion. The developing brain may make the diagnosis, assessment, and management of concussion more challenging for health care providers and requires the use of specific age-appropriate assessment tools. Concussion management must also include considerations for cognitive and physical rest, a collaborative concussion management team that includes medical and school personnel, and more conservative stepwise progressions for returning to school and to physical activity.
Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, Megan N. Houston, and Cailee E. Welch
Charles R. Thompson
The incidence of concussions and potential for long-term health effects has captured the attention of the media, general public, medical professionals, parents, and obviously the athletes themselves. Concussions have been blamed for a variety of mental and physical health issues. The athletic trainer is at the forefront of the concussion management team, as they are typically on the scene when the concussion occurs and are often the first medical personnel to evaluate and, hopefully, remove the athlete from activity. There has been controversy of late regarding the influence of coaches in the care of concussed athletes. Therefore, a move to the “medical model” of sports medicine management can go a long way in resolving conflict of interest issues regarding the care of concussed athletes. A comprehensive concussion team and protocol are also essential to providing the highest level of care. This article takes a closer look at concussion management in the collegiate arena, with a particular focus on Princeton University.
Enzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giovanna Aquino, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno, and Alessandra di Cagno
exercise. Neurocognitive Assessment The neurocognitive assessment was performed in the university’s medical offices, without any kinds of distraction to avoid influences on the neurocognitive scores. The three tests used for the assessment of memory and memory complaint are described below. The Rey 15
Theodore C. Hannah, Oranicha Jumreornvong, Naoum F. Marayati, Zachary Spiera, Muhammad Ali, Adam Y. Li, John R. Durbin, Nick Dreher, Alex Gometz, Mark Lovell, and Tanvir Choudhri
perform better on verbal memory and perceptual motor speed ( 5 , 10 , 21 ). With the emergence of various neurocognitive assessments to evaluate sports-related concussion coupled with consistent increases in female participation in sports, understanding how gender affects neurocognitive function has
Dennis W. Klima, Ethan Hood, Meredith Madden, Rachel Bell, Teresa Dawson, Catherine McGill, and Michael Patterson
-up, and comparisons between concussed and nonconcussed athletes ( Caccese et al., 2020 ). These tests have been used to establish preseason reference points, as well as to initiate interventions when deficient scores are observed. Concussion examination approaches include neurocognitive assessment
Anna Meijer, Marsh Königs, Irene M.J. van der Fels, Chris Visscher, Roel J. Bosker, Esther Hartman, and Jaap Oosterlaan
were excluded if they had an estimated IQ < 70 ( n = 10). Participating children were excluded from further analyses if they did not attend the neurocognitive assessment during the baseline measurement ( n = 17) or posttest ( n = 8). The flow diagram in Figure 1 shows the total number of children
Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit, and Morgan Anderson
using validated age-appropriate neurocognitive assessments. Previous research has also examined sex differences with regard to neurocognitive impairments after SRC. Overall, the literature is inconsistent on whether there are sex differences in youth athletes under the age of 13 years. This could be due