The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of skill level and age on golfers’ (n = 188) use of observational learning for skill, strategy, and performance functions, as assessed by the Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire. Golf handicap was used as an objective measure of golf skill level, with a lower handicap reflecting a higher skill level. It was hypothesized that both age and skill level would predict observational learning use, with younger and less experienced golfers reporting increased use of all three functions of observational learning. It was also predicted that age and skill level would interact to predict use of the performance function, with younger golfers employing more of that function than older golfers at the same skill level. Partial support was obtained for these hypotheses. Regression analyses revealed that the interaction of age and skill level predicted use of the skill function. Younger golfers employed more of the skill function than older golfers; however this discrepancy increased as skill level decreased. Age, and not skill level, was a significant predictor of golfers’ use of both the strategy and performance functions, with younger golfers employing more of these functions than older golfers. These results suggest that age-related factors may have a greater impact than skill-related factors on observational learning use across the lifespan.
Barbi Law and Craig Hall
Anna Thacker, Jennifer Ho, Arsalan Khawaja, and Larry Katz
their peers in a P2P model, instead of the passive mimic/practice teaching style, they are actively engaged through observational learning. Observational learning is the ability to learn a motor skill through observation of another individual performing said skill ( Cross et al., 2009 ). Observational
Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Christophe Gernigon, Marie-Laure Huet, Marielle Cadopi, and Fayda Winnykamen
Based on Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development and its concept of zone of proximal development, this study examined how the skill level of a peer tutor affects the achievement motivation of novice learners and their performance in a swimming task. Gender differences were also explored. High school students (N = 48) were assigned in a 2 × 3 (Gender × Tutor skill level: novice vs. intermediate vs. skilled) factorial design. Participants were invited to observe a same-sex peer tutor, complete a self-efficacy questionnaire, train with their tutor for 8 minutes, and complete a goal involvement questionnaire. Results demonstrated that skilled tutors yielded the best swimming skills for boys, whereas skilled and intermediate tutors yielded better skills than did novice tutors for girls. The skilled tutor group led to higher self-efficacy for improvement and gave more demonstrations and verbal information than did the novice group. Male tutees adopted higher ego involvement goals and trained more physically, whereas female tutees adopted higher learning goals and received more demonstrations and verbal instructions. Results are discussed in relation to educational studies conducted in a Vygotskian perspective.
Karen S. Meaney, L. Kent Griffin, and Melanie A. Hart
This investigation examined the effect of model similarity on girls’ acquisition, retention, transfer, and transfer strategies of a novel motor task. Forty girls (mean age = 10 years) were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (model skill level) ✓ 2 (model sex) factorial design using four treatment groups: (a) male skilled, (b) male learning, (c) female skilled, and (d) female learning. Quantitative data were collected throughout all phases of the investigation. ANOVA results for transfer strategies revealed a significant main effect for model skill level and model sex. Participants observing a female model or a learning model transferred significantly more learning strategies than did participants observing a male or skilled model. After quantitative data collection, qualitative data were obtained via structured interviews and assessed through content analysis. Results from the interview analyses underscored the need to include models of similar sex, as well as learning models when instructing girls in motor skills.
Flora Panteli, Charilaos Tsolakis, Dimitris Efthimiou, and Athanasia Smirniotou
This study examined the contribution of instructional self-talk and observational learning on the development of long jump technique. Sixty-nine beginner athletes were randomly assigned to four groups: ‘self-talk’, ‘video’, ‘self-talk + video’ and control group. All groups performed 24 practice sessions, consisting of a cognitive intervention program in the form of either instructional self-talk or observational learning, or a combination of both, and the practice of specific drills. A significantly higher performance improvement was recorded for the self-talk group in post test, whereas when kinematic variables of the motor skill (center of mass displacement) were assessed, “observational learning” proved to be more effective. The findings of the current study suggest that young, beginner athletes, participating in complicated tasks, may benefit from cognitive intervention techniques, through enhanced attentional focus on the most critical elements of the motor skill.
Deborah S. Baxter and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
this theory and explain how goal-directed behavior is maintained through control and reinforcement. (a) Reciprocal determinism: refers to the interaction of a person, environment, and behavior (b) Behavioral capability: refers to the ability to perform (c) Observational learning: refers to the
Moira Lafferty and Caroline Wakefield
suggested in line with SCT that observing the hazing behaviors of older team members, and the subsequent social reward and power while being initiated, presented an observational learning experience, and that in turn contributed to the desire to be in a position to become the perpetrator. Combining all of
Amanda Young, Seán Healy, Lisa Silliman-French, and Ali Brian
), including (a) behavioral capability—the ability of an individual to perform a behavior based on having the necessary knowledge and skills; (b) observational learning—learning that occurs via the observation of others; (c) outcome expectations—the consequences of the behavior that are anticipated by the
Robin D. Taylor, Howie J. Carson, and Dave Collins
.C. ( 2007 ). Competing processes of sibling influence: Observational learning and sibling deidentification . Social Development, 16 ( 4 ), 642 – 661 . doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00409.x 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00409.x Whyte , W.F. ( 1984 ). Learning from the field: A guide from experience