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Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal, and David J. Hancock

components (e.g., practice scheduling, type of feedback, and timing of feedback; Schmidt & Lee, 2014 ), including a learner’s ability to select relevant performance-related cues on which to focus. One method for attending to critical cues is by employing observational learning ( Bandura, 1977

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Penny McCullagh

The primary purpose of this experiment was to determine if model characteristics influence observer performance by exerting their prime influence on the attentional phase of observational learning as predicted by Bandura (1969). A second purpose was to determine whether model characteristics affected actual amount learned or whether merely performance levels were affected by this manipulation. There were two experimental phases. During phase 1, model status (high or low) and time of cueing (pre or post demonstration) were manipulated to test performance and attentional effects of model characteristics. During phase 2, subjects were offered an incentive before performance trials in an attempt to make a learning-versus-performance distinction. Phase 1 results indicated the subjects who viewed a high status model performed better than those viewing a low status model. The lack of any significant cueing effect suggested that model characteristics did not exert their prime influence on the attentional stage of observational learning. There were no group differences during phase 2, suggesting that performance but not actual amount learned was affected by the model status manipulation.

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Barbi Law and Craig Hall

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of skill level and age on golfers’ (n = 188) use of observational learning for skill, strategy, and performance functions, as assessed by the Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire. Golf handicap was used as an objective measure of golf skill level, with a lower handicap reflecting a higher skill level. It was hypothesized that both age and skill level would predict observational learning use, with younger and less experienced golfers reporting increased use of all three functions of observational learning. It was also predicted that age and skill level would interact to predict use of the performance function, with younger golfers employing more of that function than older golfers at the same skill level. Partial support was obtained for these hypotheses. Regression analyses revealed that the interaction of age and skill level predicted use of the skill function. Younger golfers employed more of the skill function than older golfers; however this discrepancy increased as skill level decreased. Age, and not skill level, was a significant predictor of golfers’ use of both the strategy and performance functions, with younger golfers employing more of these functions than older golfers. These results suggest that age-related factors may have a greater impact than skill-related factors on observational learning use across the lifespan.

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Edward Hebert

, theory suggests that cognition underlies observational learning, and an attempt was made to determine what learners believed they had learned by watching. Self-reports from the learners highlight the nature of information gleaned from the models in this task, specifically the strategies observed that

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Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, and Craig Hall

This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 (N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.

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Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain, and Diane M. Ste-Marie

, 1055 – 1063 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410500432243 10.1080/02640410500432243 Blandin , Y. , & Proteau , L. ( 2000 ). On the cognitive basis of observational learning: Development of mechanisms for the detection and correction of errors . The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 53

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April Karlinsky and Nicola J. Hodges

, W. , Jr. , & Fein , E.C. , Jr. ( 2003 ). Dyadic protocols, observational learning, and the acquisition of complex skills . Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting 47 ( 19 ), 2050 – 2053 . 10.1177/154193120304701908 Deci , E.L. , & Ryan , R.M. ( n

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Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Christophe Gernigon, Marie-Laure Huet, Fayda Winnykamen, and Marielle Cadopi

The purposes of this study were to qualitatively analyze peer interaction in dyads practicing a swimming skill, and to examine the potential dyad type-by-gender differences in observed peer interaction modes. Sixty-four senior high school students (32 M, 32 F) trained for 8 min either in symmetrical (same competence) or asymmetrical (different competence levels) same-sex dyads. The numbers of attempts and performance scores were also documented for novices. The observed peer interaction modes consisted of guidance-tutoring, imitation, cooperation, and parallel activity. Multivariate and univariate analyses revealed that tutoring and imitation were manifested more in asymmetrical dyads, while cooperation and parallel activity were more frequent in symmetrical dyads. Males in symmetrical dyads displayed the most parallel activity. Males carried out more attempts than females. Regarding performance, males in asymmetrical dyads benefited more from training than the other groups did. Similarities and differences with findings observed in the academic domain are discussed.

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John H. Kingsbury and John M. Tauer

The authors examined the effects of individualistic media images on children’s levels of optimism toward their future basketball careers. Three hundred sixty-five participants watched highlights featuring either Black or White players performing an easy (passing) or difficult skill (slam dunking). Results indicated that participants placed a higher value on slam dunks when they watched them in a highlight tape. In addition, we found the same interaction on 3 dependent variables, such that those who viewed a same-race model performing passes felt more optimistic about playing both college and professional basketball and higher levels of positive arousal. Given Western society’s individualistic culture, the authors suggest that increased exposure to media images that promote unselfishness and teamwork would be beneficial for young athletes.

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Nicola J. Hodges

When we watch other people perform actions, this involves many interacting processes comprising cognitive, motor, and visual system interactions. These processes change based on the context of our observations, particularly if the actions are novel and our intention is to learn those actions so we can later reproduce them, or respond to them in an effective way. Over the past 20 years or so I have been involved in research directed at understanding how we learn from watching others, what information guides this learning, and how our learning experiences, whether observational or physical, impact our subsequent observations of others, particularly when we are engaged in action prediction. In this review I take a historical look at action observation research, particularly in reference to motor skill learning, and situate my research, and those of collaborators and students, among the common theoretical and methodological frameworks of the time.