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John H. Kingsbury and John M. Tauer

The authors examined the effects of individualistic media images on children’s levels of optimism toward their future basketball careers. Three hundred sixty-five participants watched highlights featuring either Black or White players performing an easy (passing) or difficult skill (slam dunking). Results indicated that participants placed a higher value on slam dunks when they watched them in a highlight tape. In addition, we found the same interaction on 3 dependent variables, such that those who viewed a same-race model performing passes felt more optimistic about playing both college and professional basketball and higher levels of positive arousal. Given Western society’s individualistic culture, the authors suggest that increased exposure to media images that promote unselfishness and teamwork would be beneficial for young athletes.

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Nicola J. Hodges

When we watch other people perform actions, this involves many interacting processes comprising cognitive, motor, and visual system interactions. These processes change based on the context of our observations, particularly if the actions are novel and our intention is to learn those actions so we can later reproduce them, or respond to them in an effective way. Over the past 20 years or so I have been involved in research directed at understanding how we learn from watching others, what information guides this learning, and how our learning experiences, whether observational or physical, impact our subsequent observations of others, particularly when we are engaged in action prediction. In this review I take a historical look at action observation research, particularly in reference to motor skill learning, and situate my research, and those of collaborators and students, among the common theoretical and methodological frameworks of the time.

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Maureen R. Weiss

way, and I could not have done it without his guidance, generosity, and compassion. I can never thank Dan enough for his positive influence on my career. Dan’s dissertation was in the area of observational learning, and I was intrinsically interested based on coaching children varying in motor and

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Timothy D. Lee and Heather Carnahan

effects occur and represent a fertile avenue for future work and application ( Wulf, 2013 ; Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016 ). Although modeling and observational learning are not strictly new topics of investigation, they had received only sporadic study until the 1990s when the interest of both motor learning

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Alan L. Smith

those of similar age. For example, peer coping models have been used in observational learning research with children who are low in confidence and skill (e.g.,  Weiss, McCullagh, Smith, & Berlant, 1998 ). In sport settings there can be clear status differences between highly accomplished and other

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Takashi Shimazaki, Hiroaki Taniguchi, and Masao Kikkawa

that NC contributed to the formulation of impression on interpersonal communication more significantly than other communication channels ( Dobrescu, 2014 ; Mehrabian & Wiener, 1967 ). In coaching, verbal instructions with body language facilitate improved performance, according to the observational

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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

models will continue to develop to a point where theory and evidence-based programs can be developed to help children and adults interact with their surroundings and maximize the effectiveness of techniques such as peer modeling and observational learning ( Hodges, 2017 ; Ste-Marie et al., 2012