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John H. Kingsbury and John M. Tauer

The authors examined the effects of individualistic media images on children’s levels of optimism toward their future basketball careers. Three hundred sixty-five participants watched highlights featuring either Black or White players performing an easy (passing) or difficult skill (slam dunking). Results indicated that participants placed a higher value on slam dunks when they watched them in a highlight tape. In addition, we found the same interaction on 3 dependent variables, such that those who viewed a same-race model performing passes felt more optimistic about playing both college and professional basketball and higher levels of positive arousal. Given Western society’s individualistic culture, the authors suggest that increased exposure to media images that promote unselfishness and teamwork would be beneficial for young athletes.

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Takashi Shimazaki, Hiroaki Taniguchi, and Masao Kikkawa

that NC contributed to the formulation of impression on interpersonal communication more significantly than other communication channels ( Dobrescu, 2014 ; Mehrabian & Wiener, 1967 ). In coaching, verbal instructions with body language facilitate improved performance, according to the observational