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Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco, and Jacob R. Shreffler

With the growing number of online education students, and the necessity of programs to demonstrate learning effectiveness, it is essential for higher education institutions to compare the success of online students with their traditional classroom counterparts in terms of course outcomes. When

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J. Michael Martinez and Christopher R. Barnhill

Although scholars have explored sense of community in both online and face-to-face education, there has been little research of this topic in online sport management education. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework focuses on three aspects of overall student engagement in online education: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. It is through the interaction of these areas that a community of learning can be developed in online courses, and effective higher levels of learning can be implemented. The purpose of this review is to provide an overall perspective of the CoI framework as a means to enhance the student experience through discussion of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. In addition, implications for practical application in sport management programs and directions for future research of the CoI framework within sport management education will be provided, and related outcomes will be explored.

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Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner, and Jeeheon Ryu

The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.

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Mike Rayner and Tom Webb

scenario presented by COVID-19 ( Jump, 2020 ). This process was defined by Zimmerman ( 2020 , p. 1) as “the Great Online-Learning Experiment” and it is this new-found global education environment that this essay considers. Online education is not a new phenomenon. Historically, higher education

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Velina B. Brackebusch

marketing . Sport Management Education Journal, 6 ( 1 ), 71 – 80 . doi:10.1123/smej.6.1.71 10.1123/smej.6.1.71 Emmanuel , A. ( 2016 ). Reflexive learning . In S. Danver (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of online education (pp.  948 – 950 ). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, Inc . doi:10

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Tyler John Hajek and Yoon Tae Sung

, R. , & Kuh , G. ( 2008 ). Learning at a distance: Engaged or not? Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 4 ( 3 ) 3 – 7 . Cook-Sather , A. ( 2006 ). Sound, presence, and power: Student voice in educational research and reform . Curriculum Inquiry, 36 ( 4 ), 359 – 390 . https

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Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer, and Gregory Greenhalgh

study abroad, is still worthy of further exploration. References Allen , I.E. , & Seaman , J. ( 2013 ). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States . Newburyport, MA : Sloan Consortium . Anderson , P.H. , Lawton , L. , Rexeisen , R.J. , & Hubbard , A

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Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Liz A. Wanless, Sarah M. Aldridge, and Daniel W. Jones

. , & Garrett , R. ( 2017 ). The changing landscape of online education . Annapolis, MD : Quality Matters . Lim , D.H. , & Morris , M.L. ( 2009 ). Learner and instructional factors influencing learning outcomes within a blended learning environment . Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12

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Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco, Regina G. Presley, and Chelsea C. Police

status of learning styles theories . Teaching of Psychology, 42 ( 3 ), 266 – 271 . doi:10.1177/0098628315589505 10.1177/0098628315589505 Zapalska , A. , & Brozik , D. ( 2006 ). Learning styles and online education . Campus-Wide Information Systems, 23 ( 5 ), 325 – 335 . doi:10

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Daniel L. Springer, Sarah Stokowski, and Wendi Zimmer

online education (pp.  948 – 950 ). Sage Publications, Inc . Fink , J.S. ( 2016 ). Hiding in plain sight: The embedded nature of sexism in sport . Journal of Sport Management, 30 ( 1 ), 1 – 7 . 10.1123/jsm.2015-0278 Fink , J.S. , Pastore , D