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Xiaobin Hong, Yingying Liao, Yan Shi, Changzhu Qi, Mengyan Zhao, and Judy L. Van Raalte

hypothesis ( Hardy, 2006 ; Van Raalte et al., 2016 ). Individuals experience overt and covert self-talk differently. For example, some athletes and research participants may enjoy speaking self-talk aloud and feel confident doing so. Others may find the use of overt self-talk to be embarrassing or