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Francis M. Kozub and Christoph Lienert

This review explores the known literature with respect to attitudes and introduces a criterion paradigm to aid future researchers in studying links to attitude behavior. Prior writing has varied from a more atheoretical study of attitude behavior to a focus using theories from other disciplines, most notably the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). The premise of this paper is that attitude study should progress beyond basic description regarding profiles of pre and inservice teachers to the study of teacher and learner behaviors as a function of known attitude profiles and other mediating variables.

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Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Wei Sun, and Yu Liu

cognitive attention ( Yogev, Hausdorff, & Giladi, 2008 ) and executive functions ( Hausdorff, Yogev, Springer, Simon, & Giladi, 2005 ) of the brain in older adults. The dual-task paradigm/condition is typically used to describe a person who is performing a primary task while carrying out a concurrent

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Justin A. Haegele and Samuel Russell Hodge

There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

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Maria K. Talarico, Robert C. Lynall, Timothy C. Mauntel, Erin B. Wasserman, Darin A. Padua, and Jason P. Mihalik

squat speed slowed. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine if these relationships changed when a single-leg squat was completed under a dual-task paradigm compared with a single-task paradigm. We hypothesized that CoP range and sway area would increase, and sway speed would decrease to a

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Damian Farrow, Bruce Abernethy, and Robin C. Jackson

Two experiments were conducted to examine whether the conclusions drawn regarding the timing of anticipatory information pick-up from temporal occlusion studies are influenced by whether (a) the viewing period is of variable or fixed duration and (b) the task is a laboratory-based one with simple responses or a natural one requiring a coupled, interceptive movement response. Skilled and novice tennis players either made pencil-and-paper predictions of service direction (Experiment 1) or attempted to hit return strokes (Experiment 2) to tennis serves while their vision was temporally occluded in either a traditional progressive mode (where more information was revealed in each subsequent occlusion condition) or a moving window mode (where the visual display was only available for a fixed duration with this window shifted to different phases of the service action). Conclusions regarding the timing of information pick-up were generally consistent across display mode and across task setting lending support to the veracity and generalisability of findings regarding perceptual expertise in existing laboratory-based progressive temporal occlusion studies.

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Matthew Heath and David A. Westwood

We investigated whether a representation of a visual target can be stored in memory and used to support the online control of reaching movements. To distinguish between the use of a stored target representation for movement planning versus online control, we employed a novel movement environment in which participants could not fully plan their action in advance of movement initiation; that is, the spatial mapping between the movement of a computer mouse and the on-screen movement of a cursor was randomly varied from trial to trial. As such, participants were required to use online control to reach the target position. Reaches were examined in full-vision and three memory-dependent conditions (0, 2, and 5 s of delay). Absolute constant error did not accumulate between full-vision and brief delay trials (i.e., the 0-s delay), suggesting a stored representation of the visual target can be used for online control of reaching given a sufficiently brief delay interval. Longer delay trials (2 and 5 s) were less accurate and more variable than brief delay trials; however, the residual accuracy of these memory-dependent actions suggests that the motor system may have access to a stored representation of the visual target for online control processes for upwards of 5 s following target occlusion.

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Anat V. Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Helene Darmanin, and Ken Perlin

information may lead to loss of balance (LOB) with changes in the environment (e.g., darkness and rapidly moving vehicles). The sensory weighting theory has been supported in multiple studies utilizing an entrainment (i.e., moving along with a stimulus) paradigm. Specifically, Jeka’s group has demonstrated

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette, and Jason R. Franz

critical limitation overcome using a maximum impeding force paradigm during walking. Ultimately, the reference data presented here pave the way for future studies on aging or gait pathology. Indeed, insight into the magnitude of propulsive capacity reserves would empower the more discriminate and

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Michelle R. Tanel, Tyler B. Weaver, and Andrew C. Laing

balance paradigms. Although we made an a priori decision to examine 4 postural steadiness variables toward comprehensively examining potential associations, correlations between the COP variables resulted in some redundancy (and an increased number of comparisons performed). For example, during postural

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Martin Gérin-Lajoie, Carol L. Richards, and Bradford J. McFadyen

This article introduces a novel, ecological, obstructed walking paradigm. Gait adaptations to circumvent obstacles undergoing uncertain displacements, and the effect of revealing the obstacle’s action beforehand, were investigated in young adults. The personal space (PS) maintained during walking was quantified for the first time under different environmental factors including auditory distractions. Obstacle movement and its uncertainty resulted in gait adjustments aimed at gaining time to assess the situation. Early gait adaptations and constant clearances around the obstacle suggest that anticipation and preplanning are involved in such navigational tasks. Participants systematically maintained an elliptical PS during circumvention, but they adjusted its size according to different environmental factors. There was a relationship between the size of PS and level of attention, which suggests that the regulation of PS is used to control locomotion. This novel paradigm has important implications for the assessment and training of locomotor ability within real world environments.